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A subpopulation of neural crest termed the cardiac neural crest is required in avian embryos to initiate reorganization of the outflow tract of the developing cardiovascular system. In mammalian embryos, it has not been previously experimentally possible to study the long-term fate of this population, although there is strong inference that a similar(More)
Using gene trap mutagenesis, we have identified a mutation in mice that causes exencephaly, acrania, facial clefting, and spina bifida, all of which can be attributed to failed neural tube closure. This mutation is designated shroom (shrm) because the neural folds "mushroom" outward and do not converge at the dorsal midline. shrm encodes a PDZ domain(More)
Neural crest cells are multipotential stem cells that contribute extensively to vertebrate development and give rise to various cell and tissue types. Determination of the fate of mammalian neural crest has been inhibited by the lack of appropriate markers. Here, we make use of a two-component genetic system for indelibly marking the progeny of the cranial(More)
beta-Spectrin and ankyrin are major components of the membrane cytoskeleton. We have generated mice carrying a null mutation in the betaIV-spectrin gene using gene trapping in embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the mutation exhibit tremors and contraction of hindlimbs. betaIV-spectrin expression is mostly restricted to neurons, where it colocalizes(More)
Drosophila Enabled is required for proper formation of axonal structures and is genetically implicated in signaling pathways mediated by Drosophila AbI. We have identified two murine proteins, Mena and Evl, that are highly related to Enabled as well as VASP (Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein). A conserved domain targets Mena to localized proteins(More)
L1 is a neural cell adhesion molecule mainly involved in axon guidance and neuronal migration during brain development. Mutations in the human L1 gene give rise to a complex clinical picture, with mental retardation, neurologic abnormalities and a variable degree of hydrocephalus. Recently, a transgenic mouse model with a targeted null mutation in the L1(More)
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) direct diverse cellular and developmental responses by stimulating a relatively small number of overlapping signaling pathways. Specificity may be determined by RTK expression patterns or by differential activation of individual signaling pathways. To address this issue we generated knock-in mice in which the extracellular(More)
Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a member of a protein family thought to link signal transduction pathways to localized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Mena binds directly to Profilin, an actin-binding protein that modulates actin polymerization. In primary neurons, Mena is concentrated at the tips of growth cone filopodia. Mena-deficient mice are viable;(More)
Mice with mutations in four nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes, fyn, src, yes, and abl, were used to study the role of these kinases in long-term potentiation (LTP) and in the relation of LTP to spatial learning and memory. All four kinases were expressed in the hippocampus. Mutations in src, yes, and abl did not interfere with either the induction or the(More)