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OBJECTIVE The serum of most neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients contains autoantibodies (NMO-IgGs) directed against the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel located on astrocyte foot processes in the perivessel and subpial areas of the brain. Our objectives were to determine the source of central nervous system (CNS) NMO-IgGs and their role in disease(More)
NKG2D is an activating or coactivating receptor expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and gamma/delta T cells. NKG2D ligands have been detected on many tumor cell types and can be induced on nontransformed cells by environmental signals including DNA damage and inflammation. We investigated the contribution of NKG2D-NKG2D ligand(More)
The mechanisms whereby immune cells infiltrating the CNS in multiple sclerosis patients contribute to tissue injury remain to be defined. CD4 T cells are key players of this inflammatory response. Myelin-specific CD4 T cells expressing CD56, a surrogate marker of NK cells, were shown to be cytotoxic to human oligodendrocytes. Our aim was to identify(More)
Autoantibody neuromyelitis optica-IgG (NMO-IgG) recognizing aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is implicated as playing a central role in the physiopathology of NMO. The aim of this in vitro-based study was to characterize functional consequences of interaction between NMO-IgG and cells of the neurovascular unit (astrocytes and brain endothelium) that would provide insight(More)
NMO-IgG, the auto-antibody specific to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel associated with the autoimmune inflammatory disease neuromyelitis optica (NMO), is considered to be an accurate serum biomarker and is thought to be an important contributor to NMO pathology. In this review, we summarize recent evidences from our group and others indicating that(More)
The contribution of local factors to the activation of immune cells infiltrating the CNS of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) remains to be defined. The cytokine IL-15 is pivotal in the maintenance and activation of CD8 T lymphocytes, a prominent lymphocyte population found in MS lesions. We investigated whether astrocytes are a functional source of(More)
UNLABELLED An estimated one-third of the world's population is currently latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) progresses into active tuberculosis (TB) disease in ~5 to 10% of infected individuals. Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to monitor disease progression are urgently needed to ensure better(More)
Neuronal injury and loss are recognized features of neuroinflammatory disorders, including acute and chronic encephalitides and multiple sclerosis; destruction of astrocytes has been demonstrated in cases of Rasmussen encephalitis. Here, we show that innate immune cells (i.e. natural killer [NK] and gammadelta T cells) cause loss of neurons from primary(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multi-focal demyelination, axonal loss, and immune cell infiltration. Numerous immune mediators are detected within MS lesions, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes suggesting that they participate in the related pathogenesis. Although CD4(+) T(More)
NMO-IgG autoantibody is now considered a useful serum biomarker of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). A series of clinical and pathological observations suggest that NMO-IgG may play a central role in NMO physiopathology. Although the exact role and function of NMO-IgG in vivo remain to be determined, recent reports suggest that this antibody that targets the(More)