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Communicative pointing is a human specific gesture which allows sharing information about a visual item with another person. It sets up a three-way relationship between a subject who points, an addressee and an object. Yet psychophysical and neuroimaging studies have focused on non-communicative pointing, which implies a two-way relationship between a(More)
The reason for the high frequency of depression and anxiety in Parkinson's disease is poorly understood. Degeneration of neurotransmitter systems other than dopamine might play a specific role in the occurrence of these affective disorders. We used [11C]RTI-32 PET, an in vivo marker of both dopamine and noradrenaline transporter binding, to localize(More)
A concept in Parkinson's disease postulates that motor cortex may pattern abnormal rhythmic activities in the basal ganglia, underlying the genesis of observed motor symptoms. We conducted a preclinical study of electrical interference in the primary motor cortex using a chronic MPTP primate model in which dopamine depletion was progressive and regularly(More)
Huntington's disease is a hereditary disease in which degeneration of neurons in the striatum leads to motor and cognitive deficits. Foetal striatal allografts reverse these deficits in phenotypic models of Huntington's disease developed in primates. A recent open-label pilot study has shown some clinical improvement or stabilization in three out of five(More)
Smoking is associated with a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD), which might be related to a neuroprotective action of nicotine. Postmortem studies have shown a decrease of cerebral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in PD. In this study, we evaluated the decrease of nAChRs in PD in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), and we(More)
Preclinical studies suggest ropinirole (a D2/D3 dopamine agonist) may be neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD), and a pilot clinical study using (18)F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a slower loss of striatal dopamine storage with ropinirole compared with levodopa. This prospective, 2-year, randomized, double-blind, multinational(More)
Although Huntington's disease is largely considered to be a subcortical disease, there is no clear consensus on whether all deep grey matter loss is a direct downstream consequence of the massive degeneration of the medium-size spiny neurons in the striatum. Our aim was to characterise in vivo such preferential degeneration by analysing various distinct(More)
BACKGROUND The brain is deemed "immunologically privileged" due to sparse professional antigen-presenting cells and lymphatic drainage, and to the blood-brain barrier. Although the actual extent of this privilege is controversial, there is general consensus about the limited need in intracerebral neural grafts for immunosuppressive regimens comparable to(More)
UNLABELLED (123)I-FP-CIT ((123)I-N-omega-fluoropropyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane) is a SPECT dopamine transporter (DAT) tracer that probes dopaminergic cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). Quantification of (123)I-FP-CIT images is performed at equilibrium using a ratio (BR) of specific (striatal) to nonspecific (occipital) uptake(More)
BACKGROUND Based on the basal ganglia model, it has been hypothesized that the efficacy of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) against parkinsonian symptoms relies on the activation of cortical premotor regions. In previous positron emission tomography activation studies, STN high-frequency stimulation was associated with selective(More)