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Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) have been implicated in a diversity of cellular processes ranging from cellular proliferation to lipid metabolism. These pleiotropic effects stem not only from the ability of RXRs to dimerize with diverse nuclear receptors, which exert transcriptional control on specific aspects of cell biology, but also because binding of RXR(More)
Candida albicans is a common, harmless yeast in the human digestive tract that also causes severe systemic fungal infection in hospitalized patients. Its cell-wall surface displays a unique glycolipid called phospholipomannan (PLM). The ability of PLM to stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by J774 mouse cells correlates with the(More)
Hair cell (HC) and supporting cell (SC) productions are completed during early embryonic development of the mammalian cochlea. This study shows that acutely dissociated cells from the newborn rat organ of Corti, developed into so-called otospheres consisting of 98% nestin (+) cells when plated on a non-adherent substratum in the presence of either epidermal(More)
The incidence of the metabolic syndrome has taken epidemic proportions in the past decades, contributing to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a cluster of cardiovascular disease risk factors including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, and(More)
PPARalpha is a nuclear receptor that regulates liver and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism as well as glucose homeostasis. Acting as a molecular sensor of endogenous fatty acids (FAs) and their derivatives, this ligand-activated transcription factor regulates the expression of genes encoding enzymes and transport proteins controlling lipid homeostasis,(More)
5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an antiinflammatory drug widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. It is known to inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators, but the mechanism underlying the intestinal effects of 5-ASA remains unknown. Based on the common activities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging, together with PPARγ and PPARβ/δ, to the NR1C nuclear receptor subfamily. Many PPARα target genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism in tissues with high oxidative rates such as muscle, heart and liver. PPARα activation, in combination with PPARβ/δ(More)
Vitamin A derivatives plays a crucial role in embryonic development, as demonstrated by the teratogenic effect of either an excess or a deficiency in vitamin A. Retinoid effects extend however beyond embryonic development, and tissue homeostasis, lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation and proliferation are in part controlled through the retinoid(More)
The retinoic acid signaling pathway is controlled essentially through two types of nuclear receptors, RARs and RXRs. Ligand dependent activation or repression of retinoid-regulated genes is dependent on the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) heterodimers to retinoic acid response element (RARE). Although unliganded(More)
Autoimmune inner ear disease is a treatable cause of sensorineural hearing loss and it is important for physicians and hearing health professionals to recognize that early diagnosis and proper management strategies may result in stabilization and improvement in hearing. The pathogenesis of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss remains unclear but antibodies(More)