Philippe Minard

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How do we create new artificial proteins? In this review, we present a range of experimental approaches based on combinatorial and directed evolution methods used to explore sequence space and recreate structured or active proteins. These approaches can help to understand constraints of natural evolution and can lead to new useful proteins. Strategies such(More)
A new over-expression system has been set up for Escherichia coli thioredoxin, yielding 55 mg purified protein/10 g fresh cells. This system has been used to produce thioredoxin modified by site-directed mutagenesis. Taking advantage of the structural and enzymatic similarity between E. coli and spinach m-type thioredoxin, Asp61 of E. coli thioredoxin has(More)
The South-Paris Yeast Structural Genomics Project aims at systematically expressing, purifying and determining the structure of S. cerevisiae proteins with no detectable homology to proteins of known structure (http://genomics.eu.org/). We brought 250 yeast ORFs to expression in E. coli, but 37% of them form inclusion bodies. This important fraction of(More)
Neocarzinostatin is the most studied member of the enediyne-chromoprotein family, and is clinically used as an antitumoral agent. Neocarzinostatin could be a promising drug delivery vehicle if new binding specificities could be conferred to its protein scaffold. We used in vitro evolution methods to demonstrate that this approach is feasible. We created(More)
Specific, tight-binding protein partners are valuable helpers to facilitate membrane protein (MP) crystallization, because they can i) stabilize the protein, ii) reduce its conformational heterogeneity, and iii) increase the polar surface from which well-ordered crystals can grow. The design and production of a new family of synthetic scaffolds (dubbed(More)
As a step toward selecting folded proteins from libraries of randomized sequences, we have designed a 'loop entropy reduction'-based phage-display method. The basic premise is that insertion of a long disordered sequence into a loop of a host protein will substantially destabilize the host because of the entropic cost of closing a loop in a disordered(More)
The unfolding-refolding kinetics of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase were studied using the chemical reactivity of genetically introduced cysteinyl residues as conformational probes and far-ultraviolet circular dichroism. A unique internal cysteinyl residue was introduced in several mutants at selected positions in the N- and C-domains. The cysteinyl residues(More)
Experiments were designed to explore the tolerance of protein structure and folding to very large insertions of folded protein within a structural domain. Dihydrofolate reductase and beta-lactamase have been inserted in four different positions of phosphoglycerate kinase. The resultant chimeric proteins are all overexpressed, and the host as well as the(More)
The role of domains as folding units was investigated with a two-domain protein, yeast phosphoglycerate kinase. Each of the domains was produced independently by site-directed mutagenesis. It has been previously demonstrated by several criteria that these domains are able to fold in vivo into a quasi-native structure [Minard et al. (1989a) Protein Eng. 3,(More)
Flexibility and folding of phosphoglycerate kinase, a two-domain monomeric enzyme, have been studied using a wide variety of methods including theoretical approaches. Mutants of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase have been prepared in order to introduce cysteinyl residues as local probes throughout the molecule without perturbating significantly the structural(More)