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The cell entry and humoral immune response of the human pathogen Lassa virus (LV), a biosafety level 4 (BSL4) Old World arenavirus, are not well characterized. LV pseudoparticles (LVpp) are a surrogate model system that has been used to decipher factors and routes involved in LV cell entry under BSL2 conditions. Here, we describe LVpp, which are highly(More)
A ring trial was organized to evaluate Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) ELISAs by European laboratories. A total of five ELISAs, two of which specific for IgM antibodies, were evaluated by six participants. Sera were derived from cattle or sheep and originated from either a RVFV endemic area, a RVFV-free area or from experimental infection studies. Cohen's(More)
After the unexpected emergence of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in northern Europe in 2006, another arbovirus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in Europe in 2011 causing a new economically important disease in ruminants. The virus, belonging to the Orthobunyavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, was first detected in Germany, in The Netherlands(More)
A predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel Nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. Human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central(More)
Lassa virus causes a hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. The pathogenesis and the immune responses associated with the disease are poorly understood, and no vaccine is available. We followed virological, pathological, and immunological markers associated with fatal and nonfatal Lassa virus infection of cynomolgus monkeys. The clinical picture was(More)
We infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with Nipah virus to determine the monkeys' suitability for use as primate models in preclinical testing of preventive and therapeutic treatments. Infection of squirrel monkeys through intravenous injection was followed by high death rates associated with acute neurologic and respiratory illness and viral RNA(More)
The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the SARS pandemic, demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. Because SARS is contracted by aerosolized contamination of the respiratory tract, a vaccine inducing(More)
Nipah and Hendra viruses belong to the novel Henipavirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Its zoonotic circulation in bats and recent emergence in Malaysia with fatal consequences for humans that were in close contact with infected pigs, has made the reinforcement of epidemiological and clinical surveillance systems a priority. In this study, TaqMan(More)
Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LV), which primarily targets human dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MP). Massive numbers of viral particles are released with no effect on the viability, activation or maturation of these cells. LV does not inhibit the activation of cells induced by sCD40L or LPS. We report here the consequences(More)
Tula virus (TULV) is a vole-associated hantavirus with low or no pathogenicity to humans. In the present study, 686 common voles (Microtus arvalis), 249 field voles (Microtus agrestis) and 30 water voles (Arvicola spec.) were collected at 79 sites in Germany, Luxembourg and France and screened by RT-PCR and TULV-IgG ELISA. TULV-specific RNA and/or(More)