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The anterior cingulate and orbital cortices and the ventral striatum process different aspects of reward evaluation, whereas the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum are involved in cognitive function. Collectively, these areas are critical to decision making. We mapped the striatal area that receives information about reward evaluation.(More)
Rat brain microvessel endothelial cells were immortalized by transfection with a plasmid containing the E1A adenovirus gene. One clone, called RBE4, was further characterized. These cells display a nontransformed phenotype and express typical endothelial markers, Factor VIII-related antigen and Bandeiraea simplicifolia binding sites. When RBE4 cells were(More)
Cortico-basal ganglia circuits are organized in parallel channels. Information flow from functionally distinct cortical areas remains segregated within the striatum and through its direct projections to basal ganglia output structures. Whether such a segregation is maintained in trans-subthalamic circuits is still questioned. The effects of electrical(More)
The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) constitutes a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia where the final stage of information processing within this system takes place. In this study, using juxtacellular labeling and three-dimensional reconstruction methods, we investigated the spatial organization of the intranigral innervation provided by single(More)
Our previous data indicate that there are specific features of the corticostriatal pathways from the prefrontal cortex. First, corticostriatal pathways are composed of focal, circumscribed projections and of diffuse, widespread projections. Second, there is some convergence between terminal fields from different functional regions of the prefrontal cortex.(More)
Functional regions of the rat striatum related to identified cortical territories were injected ionophoretically with wheat germ agglutinin coupled to horseradish peroxidase. Coronal serial sections were cut throughout the substantia nigra. The distributions of labelled striatal projections and nigrostriatal neurons were studied. Using software developed in(More)
Together with the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GP(i)), the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra (SNr) provides a main output nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG) where the final stage of information processing within this system takes place. In the last decade, progress on the anatomical organization and functional properties of BG output(More)
Mutations in SPG4, encoding the microtubule-severing protein spastin, are responsible for the most frequent form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. We previously reported that mice harboring a deletion in Spg4, generating a premature stop codon, develop(More)
The cerebral cortex provides a major source of inputs to the basal ganglia. As has been well documented, the topography of corticostriatal projections subdivides the striatum into a mosaic of functionally distinct sectors. How information flow from these striatal sectors remains segregated or not within basal ganglia output nuclei has to be established.(More)
Upregulation of extracellular chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) is a primary cause for the failure of axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury (SCI), and the beneficial effect of their degradation by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is widely documented. Little is known, however, about the effect of ChABC treatment on astrogliosis and(More)