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Candida albicans is a common, harmless yeast in the human digestive tract that also causes severe systemic fungal infection in hospitalized patients. Its cell-wall surface displays a unique glycolipid called phospholipomannan (PLM). The ability of PLM to stimulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by J774 mouse cells correlates with the(More)
PPARalpha is a nuclear receptor that regulates liver and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism as well as glucose homeostasis. Acting as a molecular sensor of endogenous fatty acids (FAs) and their derivatives, this ligand-activated transcription factor regulates the expression of genes encoding enzymes and transport proteins controlling lipid homeostasis,(More)
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) have been implicated in a diversity of cellular processes ranging from cellular proliferation to lipid metabolism. These pleiotropic effects stem not only from the ability of RXRs to dimerize with diverse nuclear receptors, which exert transcriptional control on specific aspects of cell biology, but also because binding of RXR(More)
The nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important transcriptional regulator of bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. FXR is highly expressed in the liver and intestine and controls the synthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. However, little is known about FXR-associated proteins that contribute to metabolic(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging, together with PPARγ and PPARβ/δ, to the NR1C nuclear receptor subfamily. Many PPARα target genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism in tissues with high oxidative rates such as muscle, heart and liver. PPARα activation, in combination with PPARβ/δ(More)
Vitamin A derivatives plays a crucial role in embryonic development, as demonstrated by the teratogenic effect of either an excess or a deficiency in vitamin A. Retinoid effects extend however beyond embryonic development, and tissue homeostasis, lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation and proliferation are in part controlled through the retinoid(More)
Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are the molecular relays of retinoid action on transcription, cellular differentiation and apoptosis. Transcriptional activation of retinoid-regulated promoters requires the dismissal of corepressors and the recruitment of coactivators to promoter-bound RAR. RARs recruit in vitro a plethora of coactivators whose actual(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation is mediated, at least in part, through two related nuclear receptors, RAR and RXR. RA-induced modulation of gene expression leads generally to cellular differentiation, whereas stimulation of the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway is associated with cellular proliferation.(More)
Obese patients have chronic, low-grade inflammation that predisposes to type 2 diabetes and results, in part, from dysregulated visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) functions. The specific signaling pathways underlying WAT dysregulation, however, remain unclear. Here we report that the PPARgamma signaling pathway operates differently in the visceral WAT of(More)
It has been shown that patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML3 subtype) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (all-trans RA), 45 mg/m2/day, achieve complete remission through differentiation of the leukemic clone to mature myeloid cells, which die spontaneously. The pharmacokinetics of all-trans RA given by mouth were studied in 15 AML3 patients.(More)