Philippe Léone

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The neuroligins are postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins whose associations with presynaptic neurexins participate in synaptogenesis. Mutations in the neuroligin and neurexin genes appear to be associated with autism and mental retardation. The crystal structure of a neuroligin reveals features not found in its catalytically active relatives, such as the(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular metabolism in response to the availability of energy and is therefore a target for type II diabetes treatment. It senses changes in the ratio of AMP/ATP by binding both species in a competitive manner. Thus, increases in the concentration of AMP activate AMPK resulting in the phosphorylation and(More)
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to analyse the organization of the bovine alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa casein genes. High molecular weight DNA was prepared from fibroblasts and lymphocytes embedded in agarose and was digested with the restriction endonucleases Clal, Sall, Smal, Xhol. The digestion products were separated by PFGE,(More)
The structure of a thaumatin-like protein from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit, an allergen with antifungal properties, was solved at 1.7-A-resolution, by X-ray crystallography. Though the banana protein exhibits a very similar overall fold as thaumatin it markedly differs from the sweet-tasting protein by the presence of a surface exposed electronegative(More)
Gene mapping in cattle has progressed rapidly in recent years largely owing to the introduction of powerful genetic markers, such as the microsatellites, and through advances in physical mapping techniques such as synteny mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Microsatellite markers are often not physically mapped because they are generally(More)
The xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I) from wheat Triticum aestivum is the prototype of a novel class of cereal protein inhibitors that inhibit fungal xylanases belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 10 (GH10) and 11 (GH11). The crystal structures of XIP-I in complex with Aspergillus nidulans (GH10) and Penicillium funiculosum (GH11) xylanases have(More)
The microbial deconstruction of the plant cell wall is a key biological process that is of increasing importance with the development of a sustainable biofuel industry. The glycoside hydrolase families GH5 (PaMan5A) and GH26 (PaMan26A) endo-β-1,4-mannanases from the coprophilic ascomycete Podospora anserina contribute to the enzymatic degradation of(More)
The extracellular domains of neuroligins and neurexins interact through Ca(2+) to form flexible trans-synaptic associations characterized by selectivity for neuroligin or neurexin subtypes. This heterophilic interaction, essential for synaptic maturation and differentiation, is regulated by gene selection, alternative mRNA splicing and post-translational(More)
In Drosophila the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial infections is under the control of the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways. The Toll signaling pathway responds mainly to Gram-positive bacterial and fungal infection while the Imd pathway mediates the response to Gram-negative bacteria. Microbial recognition(More)
Genetic distances among five of the most important Italian native sheep breeds were estimated by using gene frequencies of four blood group and seven blood protein loci and by three different computing methods. The values of the three distance matrices were highly correlated. Genetic distances were found within the range values reported in the literature(More)