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The prevailing hypothesis about grasping in primates stipulates an evolution from power towards precision grips in hominids. The evolution of grasping is far more complex, as shown by analysis of new morphometric and behavioural data. The latter concern the modes of food grasping in 11 species (one platyrrhine, nine catarrhines and humans). We show that(More)
The aim of this study was to assess technical changes during constrained swimming in time-to-exhaustion tests. Ten swimmers of national standard performed a maximal 400-m front crawl and two sets of exhaustion tests at 95%, 100%, and 110% of mean 400-m speed. In the first set (free), swimmers had to maintain their speeds until exhaustion and mean stroke(More)
A variety of testing procedures are used to assess the effects of particular treatments on the training status of athletes. The present study aims to investigate the reproducibility of selected tests in swimming. Sixteen trained swimmers performed three kinds of test: 1) Constant Distance Test (CDT), 2) Constant Time Test (CTT), and 3) Constant Velocity(More)
Several statements by Pouydebat et al. (2008) do not adequately represent views of authors cited, in part because they reflect confusion in the literature about terminology regarding precision gripping. We address these problems, by tracing definitions of precision grips through the literature on manipulative behaviour and identifying the grip that is(More)
This study investigated the range of motion (ROM) (in degrees) of the upper limb and trunk, forces (Newtons), two-dimensional fraction effective force (FEF(2D)) (in percent), and torque (Newton meters) during hand cycling. Seven nondisabled participants performed a 1 min exercise test at 70 rpm on a hand cycle (HC) fixed to an ergometer in synchronous (SC)(More)
We conducted an experiment to examine the effect of substrate on the nut-cracking behavior of a group of semicaptive capuchin monkeys. We wanted to determine whether tufted capuchin monkeys were selective in choosing the substrate on which they pound nuts, and whether the choice of substrate affected the outcome. Eight adult females and eight juveniles were(More)
Grasping is essential for primates in numerous behaviors. A variety of different grasping techniques are used for obtaining food. Among humans, several studies have shown that the properties of the objects such as the size or the form influence grasp patterns. In addition, other works have tested the individual variability through grasping strategies and(More)
The evolution of the precision grips, in which an object is held between the distal surfaces of thumb and fingers and the power grip, in which an object is grasped with the palm, is poorly understood in spite of hypothesis stipulating an evolution from power toward precision grips. In human, numerous studies have shown that the external factors such as the(More)
Backrest position is a significant parameter in handcycling that one must consider when seeking to optimize the user-to-chair interface. We studied the effects of backrest position on handcycle propulsion kinematics. Ten nondisabled partici pants with no handcycle propulsion experience repeated an 8 s sprint with three backrest positions (backrest angle(More)