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The aim of this study was to assess technical changes during constrained swimming in time-to-exhaustion tests. Ten swimmers of national standard performed a maximal 400-m front crawl and two sets of exhaustion tests at 95%, 100%, and 110% of mean 400-m speed. In the first set (free), swimmers had to maintain their speeds until exhaustion and mean stroke(More)
This study investigated the range of motion (ROM) (in degrees) of the upper limb and trunk, forces (Newtons), two-dimensional fraction effective force (FEF(2D)) (in percent), and torque (Newton meters) during hand cycling. Seven nondisabled participants performed a 1 min exercise test at 70 rpm on a hand cycle (HC) fixed to an ergometer in synchronous (SC)(More)
Grasping is essential for primates in numerous behaviors. A variety of different grasping techniques are used for obtaining food. Among humans, several studies have shown that the properties of the objects such as the size or the form influence grasp patterns. In addition, other works have tested the individual variability through grasping strategies and(More)
The evolution of the precision grips, in which an object is held between the distal surfaces of thumb and fingers and the power grip, in which an object is grasped with the palm, is poorly understood in spite of hypothesis stipulating an evolution from power toward precision grips. In human, numerous studies have shown that the external factors such as the(More)
In the presence of motor redundancy, recent studies have shown that goal equivalent configurations of the body segments might be used by the central nervous system (CNS) instead of stereotypical movement patterns. In particular, some authors have shown that the CNS might choose a subset of joint configurations (termed the uncontrolled manifold or UCM) such(More)
Backrest position is a significant parameter in handcycling that one must consider when seeking to optimize the user-to-chair interface. We studied the effects of backrest position on handcycle propulsion kinematics. Ten nondisabled partici pants with no handcycle propulsion experience repeated an 8 s sprint with three backrest positions (backrest angle(More)