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Rapid expansion of the standardised approach to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment that is recommended by WHO allowed more than 36 million people to be cured between 1995 and 2008, averting up to 6 million deaths. Yet tuberculosis remains a severe global public health threat. There are more than 9 million new cases every year worldwide, and the incidence(More)
Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) killed 1.3 million people in 2012. Alongside HIV, it remains a top cause of death from an infectious disease. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) ranks second only to human immunodeficiency virus as a cause of death from an infectious agent (1.77 million deaths from TB in 2007). Global targets for reductions in the epidemiologic burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals and the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is(More)
OBJECTIVE To present a global update of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and explore trends in 1994-2010. METHODS Data on drug resistance among new and previously treated TB patients, as reported by countries to the World Health Organization, were analysed. Such data are collected through surveys of a representative sample of TB patients or surveillance(More)
HIV has increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) by up to sevenfold in African countries, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the incidence of AIDS-related TB. We use a mathematical model to investigate the short-term and long-term impacts of ART on the incidence of TB, assuming that people are tested for HIV once a year, on average, and start ART(More)
The target for TB elimination is to reduce annual incidence to less than one case per million population by 2050. Meeting that target requires a 1,000-fold reduction in incidence in little more than 35 years. This can be achieved only by combining the effective treatment of active TB-early case detection and high cure rates to interrupt transmission-with(More)
Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features(More)
To help reach the target of tuberculosis (TB) disease elimination by 2050, vaccine development needs to occur now. We estimated the impact and cost-effectiveness of potential TB vaccines in low- and middle-income countries using an age-structured transmission model. New vaccines were assumed to be available in 2024, to prevent active TB in all individuals,(More)
Lengthy or high-dose vancomycin administration prior to an infectious episode may alter the gastrointestinal flora, resulting in the selection of a vancomycinresistant strain of Lactobacillus that may overgrow other enteric bacteria, promoting bacterial translocation [7, 9]. Previous vancomycin therapy was administered in our case as well as in two-thirds(More)
Chloroquine has been widely used for malaria treatment and prophylaxis for several decades, but its usefulness has now declined with the emergence of chloroquine resistance. Recent studies showed that the K76T mutation in the PfCRT protein, initially associated to chloroquine-resistant parasites, is sometimes also present in susceptible parasites,(More)