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Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) killed 1.3 million people in 2012. Alongside HIV, it remains a top cause of death from an infectious disease. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB(More)
Rapid expansion of the standardised approach to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment that is recommended by WHO allowed more than 36 million people to be cured between 1995 and 2008, averting up to 6 million deaths. Yet tuberculosis remains a severe global public health threat. There are more than 9 million new cases every year worldwide, and the incidence(More)
HIV has increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) by up to sevenfold in African countries, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the incidence of AIDS-related TB. We use a mathematical model to investigate the short-term and long-term impacts of ART on the incidence of TB, assuming that people are tested for HIV once a year, on average, and start ART(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) ranks second only to human immunodeficiency virus as a cause of death from an infectious agent (1.77 million deaths from TB in 2007). Global targets for reductions in the epidemiologic burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals and the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is(More)
The target for TB elimination is to reduce annual incidence to less than one case per million population by 2050. Meeting that target requires a 1,000-fold reduction in incidence in little more than 35 years. This can be achieved only by combining the effective treatment of active TB-early case detection and high cure rates to interrupt transmission-with(More)
OBJECTIVE To present a global update of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and explore trends in 1994-2010. METHODS Data on drug resistance among new and previously treated TB patients, as reported by countries to the World Health Organization, were analysed. Such data are collected through surveys of a representative sample of TB patients or surveillance(More)
The targets for tuberculosis control, framed within the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, are to ensure that the incidence per head of tuberculosis is falling by 2015, and that the 1990 prevalence and mortality per head are halved by 2015. In monitoring progress in tuberculosis control, the ultimate aim for all countries is to count tuberculosis(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether the global target of halving tuberculosis (TB) mortality between 1990 and 2015 can be achieved and to conduct the first global assessment of the lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS Mortality from TB since 1990 was estimated for 213 countries using established methods endorsed(More)