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We establish a fundamental isomorphism between discrete-time balanced urn processes and certain ordinary differential systems, which are nonlinear, autonomous, and of a simple monomial form. As a consequence, all balanced urn processes with balls of two colours are proved to be analytically solvable in finite terms. The corresponding generating functions(More)
RÉSUMÉ. Nous étudions le comportement asymptotique d'une classe de suites mahlériennes dont les séries génératrices sont des produits infinis. Un exemple caractéristique est celui de l'estima-tion des coefficients de Taylor de 03A0+~k=0(1 + z2k + z2k+1)-1, voisin des partitions binaires étudiées par De Bruijn. Le résultat obtenu illustre un cas typique(More)
We study the differential probability adp ⊕ of exclusive-or when differences are expressed using addition modulo 2 N. This function is important when analysing symmetric primitives that mix exclusive-or and addition—especially when addition is used to add in the round keys. (Such primitives include idea, Mars, rc6 and Twofish.) We show that adp ⊕ can be(More)
We give a randomized algorithm in deterministic time O(N log M) for estimating the score vector of matches between a text string of length N and a pattern string of length M , i.e., the vector obtained when the pattern is slid along the text, and the number of matches is counted for each position. A direct application is approximate string matching. The(More)
The kissing-loop complex that initiates dimerization of genomic RNA is crucial for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We showed that owing to its strong similitude with the bacterial ribosomal A site it can be targeted by aminoglycosides. Here, we present its crystal structure in complex with neamine, ribostamycin, neomycin and(More)
Owing to a striking, and most likely fortuitous, structural and sequence similarity with the bacterial 16 S ribosomal A site, the RNA kissing-loop complex formed by the HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS) specifically binds 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) aminoglycoside antibiotics. We used chemical probing, molecular modeling,(More)