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Recently, we and others reported that the doublecortin gene is responsible for X-linked lissencephaly and subcortical laminar heterotopia. Here, we show that Doublecortin is expressed in the brain throughout the period of corticogenesis in migrating and differentiating neurons. Immunohistochemical studies show its localization in the soma and leading(More)
A monoclonal antibody (GT335) directed against polyglutamylated tubulin was obtained by immunization with a synthetic peptide which mimics the structure of the polyglutamylated site of alpha-tubulin. This peptide corresponds to the C-terminal sequence Glu441-Gly448 and was chemically modified by the addition of two glutamyl units at Glu445. The specificity(More)
The high degree of tubulin heterogeneity in neurons is controlled mainly at the posttranslational level. Several variants of alpha-tubulin can be posttranslationally labeled after incubation of cells with [3H]acetate or [3H]glutamate. Peptides carrying the radioactive moiety were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis, Edman(More)
The major neuronal post-translational modification of tubulin, polyglutamylation, can act as a molecular potentiometer to modulate microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) binding as a function of the polyglutamyl chain length. The relative affinity of Tau, MAP2, and kinesin has been shown to be optimal for tubulin modified by approximately 3 glutamyl units.(More)
Polyglutamylation is an important posttranslational modification of tubulin that is very active in nerve cells, where it accounts for the main factor responsible for tubulin heterogeneity. In the present work, we have analyzed quantitative and qualitative changes in glutamylated alpha- and beta-tubulin occurring during neuronal differentiation in culture.(More)
The relationship between microtubule dynamics and polyglutamylation of tubulin was investigated in young differentiating mouse brain neurons. Selective posttranslational labeling with [3H]glutamate and immunoblotting with a specific monoclonal antibody (GT335) enabled us to analyze polyglutamylation of both alpha and beta subunits. Nocodazole markedly(More)
The distribution of glutamylated tubulin has been analyzed in mammalian testis using the specific mAb GT335 by immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting. In spermatozoa of various species, immunogold labeling showed the presence of glutamylated tubulin in all of the microtubules of axoneme and centrioles, whereas the microtubule network of the spermatid(More)
The proteins carried by the slow axonal transport in the rat sciatic motor axons were radiolabeled by injecting 35S-methionine into the spinal cord, and the distribution of their solubility through the 2 main components of slow transport (SCa and SCb) was considered. For this purpose, a cytoskeleton-stabilizing buffer was designed in which a pellet enriched(More)
Brain tubulin preparations contain an abundant type of tubulin which does not undergo the normal cycle of tyrosination-detyrosination, and whose nature is still unknown. We have used peptide sequence analysis and mass spectrometry combined with immunological procedures to show that this non-tyrosinatable tubulin has a specific primary structure. It differs(More)
Macronuclear DNA of the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis contains only one size class of fragments coding for alpha-tubulin, alpha TT. We have isolated alpha TT from a partial plasmid library, using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii alpha-tubulin gene as a probe. This gene as well as the two beta-tubulin genes, beta TT1 and beta TT2, have been sequenced. None of(More)