Learn More
Parasites often exert severe negative effects upon their host's fitness. Natural selection has therefore prompted the evolution of anti-parasite mechanisms such as grooming. Grooming is efficient at reducing parasitic loads in both birds and mammals, but the energetic costs it entails have not been properly quantified. We measured both the energetic(More)
1. Sex differences in levels of parasite infection are a common rule in a wide range of mammals, with males usually more susceptible than females. Sex-specific exposure to parasites, e.g. mediated through distinct modes of social aggregation between and within genders, as well as negative relationships between androgen levels and immune defences are thought(More)
Major life history traits, such as fecundity and survival, have been consistently demonstrated to covary positively in nature, some individuals having more resources than others to allocate to all aspects of their life history. Yet, little is known about which resources (or state variables) may account for such covariation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are(More)
In parasites, host specificity may result either from restricted dispersal capacity or from fixed coevolutionary host-parasite adaptations. Knowledge of those proximal mechanisms leading to particular host specificity is fundamental to understand host-parasite interactions and potential coevolution of parasites and hosts. The relative importance of these(More)
Avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. Despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. Epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and(More)
Social life is generally associated with an increased exposure to pathogens and parasites, due to factors such as high population density, frequent physical contact and the use of perennial nest sites. However, sociality also permits the evolution of new collective behavioural defences. Wood ants, Formica paralugubris, commonly bring back pieces of(More)
Cospeciation between host-parasite species is generally thought to result in mirror-image congruent phylogenies. Incongruence can be explained by mechanisms such as host switching, duplication, failure to speciate and sorting events. To investigate the level of association in the host-parasite relationship between Spinturnicid mites and their bat hosts, we(More)
Philippe Christe, Anne Oppliger, Francesco Bancalà, Grégoire Castella, Michel Chapuisat* Institute of Ecology, Laboratory of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Biology Building, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Bugnon 19, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland *Correspondence: E-mail: michel.chapuisat@ie-zea.unil.ch(More)
Many bird parasites reduce their hosts' fitness and, as a consequence, anti-parasite behaviour such as preening and nest sanitation has evolved. These activities are time consuming and, during the day, compete directly with time devoted to foraging and food provisioning to nestlings. Moreover, infested hosts may have to allocate extra time to foraging in(More)
Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little(More)