Philippe Christe

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Major life history traits, such as fecundity and survival, have been consistently demonstrated to covary positively in nature, some individuals having more resources than others to allocate to all aspects of their life history. Yet, little is known about which resources (or state variables) may account for such covariation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are(More)
Avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. Despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. Epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and(More)
Parasites often exert severe negative effects upon their host's fitness. Natural selection has therefore prompted the evolution of anti-parasite mechanisms such as grooming. Grooming is efficient at reducing parasitic loads in both birds and mammals, but the energetic costs it entails have not been properly quantified. We measured both the energetic(More)
For a better understanding of the complex coevolutionary processes between hosts and parasites, accurate identification of the actors involved in the interaction is of fundamental importance. Blood parasites of the Order Haemosporidia, responsible for malaria, have become the focus of a broad range of studies in evolutionary biology. Interestingly,(More)
1. Sex differences in levels of parasite infection are a common rule in a wide range of mammals, with males usually more susceptible than females. Sex-specific exposure to parasites, e.g. mediated through distinct modes of social aggregation between and within genders, as well as negative relationships between androgen levels and immune defences are thought(More)
Knowledge on the temporal dynamics of host/vector/parasite interactions is a pre-requisite to further address relevant questions in the fields of epidemiology and evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases. In studies of avian malaria, the natural history of Plasmodium parasites with their natural mosquito vectors, however, is mostly unknown. Using(More)
Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little(More)
life-history models predict an evolutionary trade-off in the allocation of resources to current versus future reproduction. This corresponds, at the physiological level, to a trade-off in the allocation of resources to current reproduction or to the immune system, which will enhance survival and therefore future reproduction. For clutch size, life-history(More)
One of the major issues concerning disease ecology and conservation is knowledge of the factors that influence the distribution of parasites and consequently disease outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate avian haemosporidian composition and the distribution of these parasites in three altitudinally separated great tit (Parus major) populations in(More)
Movements and spatial distribution of host populations are expected to shape the genetic structure of their parasite populations. Comparing the genetic patterns of both interacting species may improve our understanding of their evolutionary history. Moreover, genetic analyses of parasites with horizontal transmission may serve as indicators of historical(More)