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The effects of a 3-d peripheral administration of an alpha-MSH agonist, MTII, on body weight and the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were determined in lean and genetically obese fa/fa rats by comparing MTII-treated animals with two different control groups, one being ad libitum fed, the other pair-fed to the(More)
Many homeostatic processes, including appetite and food intake, are controlled by neuroendocrine circuits involving the CNS. The CNS also directly regulates adipocyte metabolism, as we have shown here by examining central action of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Chronic central ghrelin infusion resulted in increases in the glucose utilization rate of white(More)
As NAD(+) is a rate-limiting cosubstrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38-both NAD(+) consumers-increases NAD(+) bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against(More)
Catch-up growth, a risk factor for later obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, is characterized by hyperinsulinemia and an accelerated rate for recovering fat mass, i.e., catch-up fat. To identify potential mechanisms in the link between hyperinsulinemia and catch-up fat during catch-up growth, we studied the in vivo action of insulin on(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine known to antagonise the actions of IL-1. We have previously shown that IL-1Ra is markedly upregulated in the serum of obese patients, is correlated with BMI and insulin resistance, and is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese humans. The aim of this(More)
Resistin is an adipose-derived hormone that has been proposed as a link among obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. In agreement with a role of resistin in insulin resistance, the administration of recombinant resistin led to glucose intolerance in mice and impaired insulin action in rat liver. However, the regulation of resistin expression by(More)
To assess whether intracerebroventricular leptin administration affects monodeiodinase type II (D2) activity in the tissues where it is expressed [cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, pituitary, and brown adipose tissue (BAT)], hepatic monodeiodinase type I (D1) activity was inhibited with propylthiouracil (PTU), and small doses of thyroxine (T4; 0.6 nmol. 100 g(More)
Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The aims of this work were to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on insulin-stimulated glucose turnover and to unravel the potential mechanisms involved in such an effect. METHODS Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of propylthiouracil, with partial T4 substitution. Euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps, associated with the(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are recruited to sites of inflammation, where they are in close vicinity with other immune cell types. The present study demonstrates that direct cell-cell contact with stimulated T cells activates PMN respiratory burst. To discard interferences with soluble products, membranes isolated from human T lymphocytes (msT) or(More)