Philippa Wiggins

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BACKGROUND Many well-documented biochemical processes lack a molecular mechanism. Examples are: how ATP hydrolysis and an enzyme contrive to perform work, such as active transport; how peptides are formed from amino acids and DNA from nucleotides; how proteases cleave peptide bonds, how bone mineralses; how enzymes distinguish between sodium and potassium;(More)
The state of intracellular water has been a matter of controversy for a long time for two reasons. First, experiments have often given conflicting results. Second, hitherto, there have been no plausible grounds for assuming that intracellular water should be significantly different from bulk water. A collective behavior of water molecules is suggested here(More)
The proposal that liquid water consists of microdomains of rapidly-exchanging polymorphs of high and low density is examined for its impact upon roles of water in biology. It is assumed that the two polymorphs persist in solution and adjacent to surfaces and that solutes partition asymmetrically between them. It transpires that chaotropes are solutes which(More)
Resting and active states of cells are described in terms of the expectation, derived from experiments with aqueous polymers, that they contain two modified forms of water: high density, reactive, fluid water and low density, inert, viscous water. Low density water predominates in a resting cell and is converted to high density water in an active cell. It(More)
Using a modified equilibrium dialysis cell the rate of diffusion of butyrate through pig colonic mucus has been compared with that through other gels and unstirred layers. Relative diffusion coefficients were calculated for each layer. Layers of 8% polyacrylamide, and of caecal, mid-colonic and terminal colonic mucus, had coefficients that were 50-60% of(More)
Gels equilibrated with aqueous solutions of impermeant solutes reached a steady state in which, in the absence of a pressure difference, the activity of water in the pores of the gel was higher than that of water in the external solution. The chemical potential of water in the gel/polymer solution slurry was higher than that in the supernatant polymer(More)
We aimed to show that Campylobacter pylori infection increases the concentration of ammonia in the gastric mucus and alters the movement of H+ through the mucus. Mucus from uninfected and C. pylori-infected stomachs was collected at postmortem. Ammonia was measured enzymatically. The ammonia concentration in C. pylori-infected mucus was fourfold greater(More)
A myriad different constituents or elements (genes, proteins, lipids, ions, small molecules etc.) participate in numerous physico-chemical processes to create bacteria that can adapt to their environments to survive, grow and, via the cell cycle, reproduce. We explore the possibility that it is too difficult to explain cell cycle progression in terms of(More)