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Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is frequently associated with T cell immunodeficiencies. Specifically, the proinflammatory IL-17A-producing Th17 subset is implicated in protection against fungi at epithelial surfaces. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome 1), CMC is often the(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to comprehensively define the genetic basis of early onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG). METHODS We have carried out a 2-stage genome-wide association study on a total of 649 North European EOMG patients. Cases were matched 1:4 with controls of European ancestry. We performed imputation and conditional analyses across(More)
BACKGROUND Spindle cell tumors of the larynx are rare. In some cases, the dignity is difficult to determine. We report two cases of laryngeal spindle cell tumors. CASE PRESENTATION Case 1 is a spindle cell carcinoma (SPC) in a 55 year-old male patient and case 2 an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) in a 34 year-old female patient. A comprehensive(More)
In generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) patients without detectable acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies (SNMG), the thymus is often reported as "normally involuted." We analyzed thymic compartments in 67 patients with generalized MG, with AChR antibodies (AChR+, n = 23), with muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) antibodies (MuSK+, n = 14) or with neither(More)
BACKGROUND The identification of additional prognostic markers to improve risk stratification and to avoid overtreatment is one of the most urgent clinical needs in prostate cancer (PCa). MicroRNAs, being important regulators of gene expression, are promising biomarkers in various cancer entities, though the impact as prognostic predictors in PCa is poorly(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prime autoimmune manifestation of thymomas. We investigated the generation of T cells with a regulatory phenotype (T(R)) in thymomas with and without associated MG. In patients with MG(+) thymomas, maturation and export of T(R) cells but not of other T-cell subsets was significantly reduced. We conclude that imbalance between(More)
The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play(More)
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer leads to improved survival; however, predictors of response to systemic treatment are not available. Genomic and epigenetic alterations of the gene encoding transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (TFAP2E) are common in human cancers. The gene encoding dickkopf homolog 4 protein (DKK4) is a potential(More)
The thymus is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). The 80% of MG patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies fall into three clinical subgroups: 1) thymoma; 2) early-onset MG (<age of 40; EOMG) and 3) late-onset (LOMG; onset after 40). Thymectomy is widely used in EOMG, but its benefits have not been(More)
The insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway to mTOR is essential for the survival and growth of normal cells and also contributes to the genesis and progression of cancer. This signaling pathway is linked with regulation of mitochondrial function, but how is incompletely understood. Here we show that IGF-I and insulin induce rapid(More)