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The process of land degradation is a local phenomenon that occurs field by field. Because of the extent at which it is occurring, however, it also has a global dimension. Agroforestry represents a link between the local and global scales. From the farmer's perspective, agroforestry can be a way to increase crop yields and the diversity of products grown. An(More)
Spruce (Picea Abies L.) trees from the same clone were supplied with different, but low, amounts of plant available sulfate in the soil (9.7-18.1 milligrams per 100 grams of soil). Branches attached to the trees were enclosed in a dynamic gas exchange cuvette and analyzed for the emission of volatile sulfur compounds. Independent of the sulfate supply in(More)
The uptake of large particles by cells (phagocytosis) is an important factor in cell biology and also plays a major role in biomedical applications. So far, most methods for determining the phagocytic properties rely on cell-culture incubation and end-point detection schemes. Here, we present a lab-on-a-chip system for real-time monitoring of magnetic(More)
Zinc metal nanowires (NWs) of two different morphologies have been synthesized in a cold-wall physical vapor deposition (CWPVD) chamber at high vacuum conditions and growth temperatures of 150 degrees C. Substrates initially seeded by gold or platinum crystals show NWs of wool-like and/or unidirectional morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)(More)
Polymeric nanowires of polypyrrole have been implemented as artificial cilia on giant-magneto-resistive multilayer sensors for a biomimetic sensing approach. The arrays were tagged with a magnetic material, the stray field of which changes relative to the underlying sensor as a consequence of mechanical stimuli which are delivered by a piezoactuator. The(More)
We analyze Wind, ACE and STEREO (A and B) plasma and magnetic field data in the vicinity of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossed by all spacecraft between 22:15 UT on March 31 and 01:25 UT on April 1, 2007; corresponding to its observation at ST-A and ST-B which were separated by over 1800 R E (or over 1200 R E across the Sun-Earth line). Although(More)
Previous work has shown that solar wind suprathermal electrons can display a number of features in terms of their anisotropy. Of importance is the occurrence of counter-streaming electron patterns, i.e., with " beams " both parallel and anti-parallel to the local magnetic field, which is believed to shed light on the heliospheric magnetic field topology. In(More)
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a secondary atmospheric pollutant, is also formed in forest soil and thus ranked among natural organohalogens. The observed biooxidation of atmospheric tetrachloroethene (PER) to TCA in chloroplasts has led to the investigation of the mode of action of TCA in spruce needles, since TCA is also accumulated in the needles after its(More)
Adhesion and spreading of cells strongly depend on the properties of the underlying surface, which has significant consequences in long-term cell behavior adaption. This relationship is important for the understanding of both biological functions and their bioactivity in disease-related applications. Employing our magnetic lab-on-a-chip system, we present(More)