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BACKGROUND In a previous meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing lithium with placebo as a long-term treatment in bipolar disorders, we observed a clear preventative effect for manic episodes; however, the effect was equivocal for depressive episodes. Since then, the evidence base has grown further. In this update, we furthermore present the(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental conditions early in life may imprint the circadian system and influence response to environmental signals later in life. We previously determined that a large springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location was associated with a younger age of onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study is to investigate drug treatment patterns in bipolar disorder using daily data from patients who received treatment as usual. METHODS Patients self-reported the drugs taken daily for about 6 months. Daily drug use and drug combinations were determined for each patient, both by the specific drugs and by medication(More)
The management and treatment of patients with suicidal behavior is one of the most challenging tasks for health-care professionals. Patients with affective disorders are at high risk for suicidal behavior, therefore, should be a target for prevention. Numerous international studies of lithium use have documented anti-suicidal effects since the 1970s.(More)
BACKGROUND This study analyzed regularity in the daily dosage of antidepressants taken by patients with bipolar disorder and identified the factors associated with irregularity. METHODS Daily self-reported medication dosage taken and mood ratings were available from 144 patients who received treatment as usual. All 144 patients took the same(More)
There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage(More)
BACKGROUND Probiotic bacteria are thought to play an important role in the digestive system and therefore have to survive the passage from stomach to intestines. Recently, a novel approach to simulate the passage from stomach to intestines in a single bioreactor was developed. The advantage of this automated one reactor system was the ability to test the(More)
BACKGROUND Information seeking is an important coping mechanism for dealing with chronic illness. Despite a growing number of mental health websites, there is little understanding of how patients with bipolar disorder use the Internet to seek information. METHODS A 39 question, paper-based, anonymous survey, translated into 12 languages, was completed by(More)