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Immune cells are somewhat unique in that activation responses can alter quantitative phenotypes upwards of 100,000-fold. To date little is known about the metabolic adaptations necessary to mount such dramatic phenotypic shifts. Screening for novel regulators of macrophage activation, we found nonprotein kinases of glucose metabolism among the most enriched(More)
Allergies are widely considered to be misdirected type 2 immune responses, in which immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are produced against any of a broad range of seemingly harmless antigens. However, components of insect venoms also can sensitize individuals to develop severe IgE-associated allergic reactions, including fatal anaphylaxis, upon subsequent(More)
Cromolyn, widely characterized as a 'mast cell stabilizer', has been used in mice to investigate the biological roles of mast cells in vivo. However, it is not clear to what extent cromolyn can either limit the function of mouse mast cells or influence biological processes in mice independently of effects on mast cells. We confirmed that cromolyn (at 10(More)
BACKGROUND Mast cells are secretory immune cells whose degranulation can provoke acute allergic reactions. It is presently unclear, however, whether an individual mast cell can repeatedly degranulate or turns dysfunctional after a single antigen stimulus. This work thus aims to better define the mast cell life cycle, with particular focus on new target(More)
BACKGROUND Nitration of proteins on tyrosine residues, which can occur due to polluted air under "summer smog" conditions, has been shown to increase the allergic potential of allergens. Since nitration of tyrosine residues is also observed during inflammatory responses, this modification could directly influence protein immunogenicity and might therefore(More)
Previous studies have indicated that specific molecular properties of proteins may determine their allergenicity. Allergen interaction with epithelia as the first contact site could be decisive for a resulting immune response. We investigate here for the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 whether thermal processing results in structural changes which may impact(More)
The major house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 are prevalent inducers of eczema. Der p 1 is a cysteine protease disrupting epithelial barriers, whereas Der p 2 functionally mimics the LPS-binding compound MD-2 within the TLR4 complex. In this work, we tested the percutaneous sensitizing capacity of recombinant (r) Der p 1 and Der p 2 in BALB/c(More)
BACKGROUND An association has been described between mortality in children with meningococcal disease and functional polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL1) cluster. We undertook a multicenter study to evaluate associations of these polymorphisms in a Central European population. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study involved 95 Middle European pediatric(More)
The currently applied immunotherapy of type I allergy with aluminum hydroxide (alum) as adjuvant elicits - among other side effects - an initial IgE-boost. In contrast, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) drive the immune response toward Th1. The biodegradable material protamine can spontaneously form nanoparticles together with such ODNs. Our aim was to(More)
Mast cell-derived group III phospholipase A 2 (PLA2G3) and fibroblast prostaglandin synthase contribute to a PGD 2 and mast-cell-DP-1-dependent mast cell-fibroblast paracrine axis that can enhance mast cell maturation and mediator secretion. Mast cells are derived from hematopoietic precursors that complete their differentiation and maturation in the(More)