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We describe an open-source toolkit for statistical machine translation whose novel contributions are (a) support for linguistically motivated factors, (b) confusion network decoding, and (c) efficient data formats for translation models and language models. In addition to the SMT decoder, the toolkit also includes a wide variety of tools for training,(More)
We propose a new phrase-based translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrase-based translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrase-based models outperform word-based models. Our empirical results, which hold(More)
We present an efficient algorithm to estimate large modified Kneser-Ney models including interpolation. Streaming and sorting enables the algorithm to scale to much larger models by using a fixed amount of RAM and variable amount of disk. Using one machine with 140 GB RAM for 2.8 days, we built an unpruned model on 126 billion tokens. Machine translation(More)
We present an extension of phrase-based statistical machine translation models that enables the straight-forward integration of additional annotation at the word-level — may it be linguistic markup or automatically generated word classes. In a number of experiments we show that factored translation models lead to better translation performance, both in(More)
This paper presents the results of the WMT16 shared tasks, which included five machine translation (MT) tasks (standard news, IT-domain, biomedical, multimodal, pronoun), three evaluation tasks (metrics, tuning, run-time estimation of MT quality), and an automatic post-editing task and bilingual document alignment task. This year, 102 MT systems from 24(More)
This paper presents the results of the WMT14 shared tasks, which included a standard news translation task, a separate medical translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and a metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems from 23 institutions were submitted to the ten translation directions in the standard(More)
We present the results of the WMT13 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and an unofficial metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems were submitted to the ten translation tasks from 23 institutions. An additional 6 anonymized systems were included, and were then(More)