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Reflex increases in genioglossus (GG) muscle activity in response to negative pharyngeal pressure are important for maintenance of upper airway patency in humans. However, little is known of the central circuitry that mediates this negative pressure reflex (NPR). We used two approaches to determine which GG premotoneurons relay negative pressure-related(More)
INTRODUCTION Teaching endotracheal intubation to medical students is a task provided by many academic anesthesia departments. We tested the hypothesis that teaching with a novel videolaryngoscope improves students' intubation skills. METHODS We prospectively assessed in medical students (2nd clinical year) intubation skills acquired by intubation attempts(More)
BACKGROUND It is standard practice to administer a cholinesterase inhibitor (e.g., neostigmine) at the end of a surgical case to reverse suspected effects of neuromuscular blocking agents regardless of whether such residual effects are present. The authors hypothesized that cholinesterase inhibition when given the in absence of neuromuscular blockade (NB)(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthesia impairs upper airway integrity, but recent data suggest that low doses of some anesthetics increase upper airway dilator muscle activity, an apparent paradox. The authors sought to understand which anesthetics increase or decrease upper airway dilator muscle activity and to study the mechanisms mediating the effect. METHODS The(More)
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder of breathing but is probably underappreciated as a perioperative risk factor. METHODS This review is based on pertinent articles, published up to 15 August 2015, that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed based on the terms "sleep apnea AND anesthesia" OR "sleep apnea AND(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthetics depress both ventilatory and upper airway dilator muscle activity and thus put the upper airway at risk for collapse. However, these effects are agent-dependent and may involve upper airway and diaphragm muscles to varying degrees. The authors assessed the effects of pentobarbital on upper airway dilator and respiratory pump muscle(More)
BACKGROUND The duration of action of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NBDs) varies between individuals and even within individuals in different settings. OBJECTIVES To define predictors of variance in duration of action of rocuronium and cisatracurium administered long-term. METHODS A prospective, double-blind, multicenter trial that included 113 patients(More)
A computer-based content of 109 abstracts retrieved by the subject heading "parapsychology" from the database MEDLINE for the years 1975-1995 is presented. Data were analyzed by four categories to terms denoting (1) research methods, (2) neurosciences, (3) humanities/psychodynamics, and (4) parapsychology. Results indicated a growing interest in(More)
Comorbidity, the simultaneous occurrence of different psychiatric disorders, is a common phenomenon in child and adolescent psychiatry. Usually, it affects the prognosis negatively. For example, drug abuse increases the risk of drug dependency among adolescents with conduct disorders. In this study, a high-risk group of 30 adolescents with conduct disorders(More)