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Fic proteins that are defined by the ubiquitous FIC (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) domain are known to catalyse adenylylation (also called AMPylation); that is, the transfer of AMP onto a target protein. In mammalian cells, adenylylation of small GTPases through Fic proteins injected by pathogenic bacteria can cause collapse of the actin cytoskeleton(More)
Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an(More)
Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the(More)
Microbial communities in animal guts are composed of diverse, specialized bacterial species, but little is known about how gut bacteria diversify to produce genetically and ecologically distinct entities. The gut microbiota of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, presents a useful model, because it consists of a small number of characteristic bacterial species,(More)
As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few(More)
UNLABELLED Honeybees harbor well-defined bacterial communities in their guts. The major members of these communities appear to benefit the host, but little is known about how they interact with the host and specifically how they interface with the host immune system. In the pylorus, a short region between the midgut and hindgut, honeybees frequently exhibit(More)
Social bees collect carbohydrate-rich food to support their colonies, and yet, certain carbohydrates present in their diet or produced through the breakdown of pollen are toxic to bees. The gut microbiota of social bees is dominated by a few core bacterial species, including the Gram-negative species Gilliamella apicola We isolated 42 strains of G. apicola(More)
Interactions with microbes affect many aspects of animal biology, including immune system development, nutrition and health. In vertebrates, the gut microbiota is dominated by a small subset of phyla, but the species composition within these phyla is typically not conserved. Moreover, several recent studies have shown that bacterial species in the gut are(More)
The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system(More)
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