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Molecular chaperones of the Hsp70 type transiently sequester unfolded segments of proteins and promote their correct folding. Target peptides were labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore so that their binding to the molecular chaperone DnaK of Escherichia coli could be followed in real time. The two-step process was characterized by relaxation(More)
Biochemical and pharmacological effects of gamma-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin, GVG), and irreversible enzyme-activated inhibitor of 4-aminobutyrate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (EC; GABA-T), were measured in mice. This anticonvulsant produced a time- and dose-dependent elevation of the GABA, phenylalanine and lysine contents of cortical tissue and(More)
Stereotyped sniffing behavior together with forepaw padding--defined as the beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) syndrome--is induced by MAO-B inhibitors in rats injected with 30 mg/kg IP PEA. The comparison of the abilities of the MAO-B inhibitors to induce the syndrome and to inhibit MAO-B in rat brain homogenates indicated that at least 75% of MAO-B activity in(More)
Prion-related diseases are accompanied by neurodegeneration, astroglial proliferation and formation of proteinase K-resistant aggregates of the scrapie isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). The synthetic PrP fragment 106-126 was reported to be neurotoxic towards cultured rat hippocampal neurons (Forloni, G., Angeretti, N., Chiesa, R., Monzani, E., Salmona,(More)
While the toxicity of metals and metalloids, like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and chromium, is undisputed, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely clear. General consensus holds that proteins are the prime targets; heavy metals interfere with the physiological activity of specific, particularly susceptible proteins, either by forming a(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction and maintenance of plasmids in cells is often associated with a reduction of growth rate. The reason for this growth reduction is unclear in many cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We observed a surprisingly large reduction in growth rate of about 50% of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during methylotrophic growth in the(More)
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is a facultative methylotrophic Alphaproteobacterium and has been subject to intense study under pure methylotrophic as well as pure heterotrophic growth conditions in the past. Here, we investigated the metabolism of M. extorquens AM1 under mixed substrate conditions, i.e., in the presence of methanol plus succinate. We(More)
Faster growing and more virulent strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly displacing highly resistant MRSA. Elevated fitness in these MRSA is often accompanied by decreased and heterogeneous levels of methicillin resistance; however, the mechanisms for this phenomenon are not yet fully understood. Whole genome(More)
BACKGROUND The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent or vitamin B6-dependent enzymes that catalyze manifold reactions in the metabolism of amino acids belong to no fewer than four evolutionarily independent protein families. The multiple evolutionary origin and the essential mechanistic role of PLP in these enzymes argue for the cofactor having arrived on(More)