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Innate immune responses are vital for pathogen defense but can result in septic shock when excessive. A key mediator of septic shock is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is shed from the plasma membrane after cleavage by the TNFα convertase (TACE). We report that the rhomboid family member iRhom2 interacted with TACE and regulated TNFα shedding. iRhom2(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Here we have investigated how the neural glutamine transporter (rATA1/GlnT) works. Rat ATA1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings, ion-sensitive microelectrodes and tracer flux(More)
Suicidal death of erythrocytes (eryptosis) is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, activation of proteases, and phosphatidylserine exposure at the outer membrane leaflet. Exposed phosphatidylserine is recognized by macrophages that engulf and degrade the affected cells. Eryptosis is triggered by erythrocyte injury after several stressors,(More)
Lymph nodes prevent the systemic dissemination of pathogens such as viruses that infect peripheral tissues after penetrating the body's surface barriers. They are also the staging ground of adaptive immune responses to pathogen-derived antigens. It is unclear how virus particles are cleared from afferent lymph and presented to cognate B cells to induce(More)
The suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling resulting in phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis is stimulated in a wide variety of diseases including sepsis, haemolytic uremic syndrome, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia,(More)
Erythrocyte injury such as osmotic shock, oxidative stress or energy depletion stimulates the formation of prostaglandin E2 through activation of cyclooxygenase which in turn activates a Ca2+ permeable cation channel. Increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations activate Ca2+ sensitive K+ channels leading to hyperpolarization, subsequent loss of KCl and(More)
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling plays a role in inflammation, cancer, and senescence. Here, we identified soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) as a member of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescence-associated sIL-6R upregulation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). sIL-6R was mainly generated by a disintegrin and(More)
Erythrocytes lack nuclei and mitochondria, the organelles important for apoptosis of nucleated cells. However, following increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, erythrocytes undergo cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing and breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry, all features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. The same events are observed(More)
The sequelae of mercury intoxication include induction of apoptosis. In nucleated cells, Hg2+-induced apoptosis involves mitochondrial damage. The present study has been performed to elucidate effects of Hg2+ in erythrocytes which lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like alterations of the cell membrane. Previous studies have documented that(More)
Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy is used to counteract anemia that is the result of renal insufficiency. It stimulates the formation of peripheral blood erythrocytes by inhibiting apoptosis of erythrocyte precursor cells. Mature erythrocytes have similarly been shown to undergo apoptosis. Hyperosmotic shock and Cl(-) removal activate a(More)