Philipp A. Lang

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Lymph nodes prevent the systemic dissemination of pathogens such as viruses that infect peripheral tissues after penetrating the body's surface barriers. They are also the staging ground of adaptive immune responses to pathogen-derived antigens. It is unclear how virus particles are cleared from afferent lymph and presented to cognate B cells to induce(More)
Hyperosmotic shock, energy depletion, or removal of extracellular Cl(-) activates Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels in erythrocyte membranes. Subsequent Ca(2+) entry induces erythrocyte shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. PS-exposing cells are engulfed by macrophages. The present study explored the signalling(More)
Erythrocytes lack nuclei and mitochondria, the organelles important for apoptosis of nucleated cells. However, following increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, erythrocytes undergo cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing and breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry, all features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. The same events are observed(More)
Innate immune responses are vital for pathogen defense but can result in septic shock when excessive. A key mediator of septic shock is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is shed from the plasma membrane after cleavage by the TNFα convertase (TACE). We report that the rhomboid family member iRhom2 interacted with TACE and regulated TNFα shedding. iRhom2(More)
Exposure of erythrocytes to the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin has recently been shown to induce cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry, all features typical of apoptosis of nucleated cells. Although breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry is thought to result from activation of a Ca2+-sensitive scramblase, the(More)
Erythrocyte injury such as osmotic shock, oxidative stress or energy depletion stimulates the formation of prostaglandin E2 through activation of cyclooxygenase which in turn activates a Ca2+ permeable cation channel. Increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations activate Ca2+ sensitive K+ channels leading to hyperpolarization, subsequent loss of KCl and(More)
Despite development of new antiviral drugs, viral infections are still a major health problem. The most potent antiviral defense mechanism is the innate production of type I interferon (IFN-I), which not only limits virus replication but also promotes antiviral T cell immunity through mechanisms, which remain insufficiently studied. Using the murine(More)
Sequelae of sepsis include anemia which presumably results from accelerated clearance of erythrocytes from circulating blood. The underlying mechanisms, however, remained hitherto elusive. Most recent studies disclosed that increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ceramide both trigger suicidal erythrocyte death (i.e., eryptosis), which is characterized by(More)
Suicidal death of erythrocytes (eryptosis) is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, activation of proteases, and phosphatidylserine exposure at the outer membrane leaflet. Exposed phosphatidylserine is recognized by macrophages that engulf and degrade the affected cells. Eryptosis is triggered by erythrocyte injury after several stressors,(More)
Cell proliferation and apoptosis are paralleled by altered regulation of ion channels that play an active part in the signaling of those fundamental cellular mechanisms. Cell proliferation must - at some time point - increase cell volume and apoptosis is typically paralleled by cell shrinkage. Cell volume changes require the participation of ion transport(More)