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Innate immune responses are vital for pathogen defense but can result in septic shock when excessive. A key mediator of septic shock is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is shed from the plasma membrane after cleavage by the TNFα convertase (TACE). We report that the rhomboid family member iRhom2 interacted with TACE and regulated TNFα shedding. iRhom2(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Here we have investigated how the neural glutamine transporter (rATA1/GlnT) works. Rat ATA1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings, ion-sensitive microelectrodes and tracer flux(More)
The suicidal death of erythrocytes or eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling resulting in phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis is stimulated in a wide variety of diseases including sepsis, haemolytic uremic syndrome, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia,(More)
The regulation of cellular survival and apoptosis is of critical importance for the immune system to maintain immune homeostasis and to establish tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that the immune specific cell surface molecule Toso exhibits antiapoptotic effects on death receptor signaling by a novel regulatory mechanism involving the adaptor kinase RIP1. The(More)
Lymph nodes prevent the systemic dissemination of pathogens such as viruses that infect peripheral tissues after penetrating the body's surface barriers. They are also the staging ground of adaptive immune responses to pathogen-derived antigens. It is unclear how virus particles are cleared from afferent lymph and presented to cognate B cells to induce(More)
Alterations of cell volume are key events during both cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death. Cell proliferation eventually requires an increase of cell volume, and apoptosis is typically paralleled by cell shrinkage. Alterations of cell volume require the participation of ion transport across the cell membrane, including appropriate activity of Cl(-)(More)
Understanding the factors that impede immune responses to persistent viruses is essential in designing therapies for HIV infection. Mice infected with LCMV clone-13 have persistent high-level viremia and a dysfunctional immune response. Interleukin-7, a cytokine that is critical for immune development and homeostasis, was used here to promote immunity(More)
  • J A B R Zimrin, Hess, +11 authors M Föller
  • 2014
Changes in RBC intracellular Calcium content over storage time During blood storage, as adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) decreases over time, an increase in RBC Ca 2+ develops irreversibly. 1 Calcium influx is well known to promote eryptosis as well as microparticle formation, partially via phosphatidylserine externalization. 2-5 In this work, we also(More)
The course of malaria does not only depend on the virulence of the parasite Plasmodium but also on properties of host erythrocytes. Here, we show that infection of erythrocytes from human sickle cell trait (HbA/S) carriers with ring stages of P. falciparum led to significantly enhanced PGE(2) formation, Ca(2+) permeability, annexin-A7 degradation,(More)
The serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinase SGK1 is regulated by alterations of cell volume, whereby cell shrinkage increases and cell swelling decreases the transcription, expression and activity of SGK1. The kinase is expressed in all human tissues studied including the brain. The present study was performed to localize the sites of SGK1 transcription(More)