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Innate immune responses are vital for pathogen defense but can result in septic shock when excessive. A key mediator of septic shock is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is shed from the plasma membrane after cleavage by the TNFα convertase (TACE). We report that the rhomboid family member iRhom2 interacted with TACE and regulated TNFα shedding. iRhom2(More)
Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Here we have investigated how the neural glutamine transporter (rATA1/GlnT) works. Rat ATA1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings, ion-sensitive microelectrodes and tracer flux(More)
Lymph nodes prevent the systemic dissemination of pathogens such as viruses that infect peripheral tissues after penetrating the body's surface barriers. They are also the staging ground of adaptive immune responses to pathogen-derived antigens. It is unclear how virus particles are cleared from afferent lymph and presented to cognate B cells to induce(More)
Understanding the factors that impede immune responses to persistent viruses is essential in designing therapies for HIV infection. Mice infected with LCMV clone-13 have persistent high-level viremia and a dysfunctional immune response. Interleukin-7, a cytokine that is critical for immune development and homeostasis, was used here to promote immunity(More)
The serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinase SGK1 is regulated by alterations of cell volume, whereby cell shrinkage increases and cell swelling decreases the transcription, expression and activity of SGK1. The kinase is expressed in all human tissues studied including the brain. The present study was performed to localize the sites of SGK1 transcription(More)
The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage(More)
Cellular homeostasis is controlled by pathways that balance cell death with survival. Mcl-1 ubiquitin ligase E3 (Mule) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the proapoptotic molecule p53 for polyubiquitination and degradation. To elucidate the role of Mule in B lymphocyte homeostasis, B cell-specific Mule knockout (BMKO) mice were generated using the(More)
The signaling adaptor TNFR-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) is specifically lost from virus-specific CD8 T cells during the chronic phase of infection with HIV in humans or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 in mice. In contrast, TRAF1 is maintained at higher levels in virus-specific T cells of HIV controllers or after acute LCMV infection. TRAF1(More)
Type I interferon (IFN-I) strongly inhibits viral replication and is a crucial factor in controlling virus infections and diseases. Cellular activation through pattern recognition receptors induces interferon production in a wide variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and cells of(More)
Infection with viruses carrying cross-reactive antigens is associated with break of immunological tolerance and induction of autoimmune disease. Dendritic cells play an important role in this process. However, it remains unclear why autoimmune-tolerance is broken during virus infection, but usually not during exposure to non-replicating cross-reactive(More)