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Transfer of glutamine between astrocytes and neurons is an essential part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain. Here we have investigated how the neural glutamine transporter (rATA1/GlnT) works. Rat ATA1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings, ion-sensitive microelectrodes and tracer flux(More)
Innate immune responses are vital for pathogen defense but can result in septic shock when excessive. A key mediator of septic shock is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is shed from the plasma membrane after cleavage by the TNFα convertase (TACE). We report that the rhomboid family member iRhom2 interacted with TACE and regulated TNFα shedding. iRhom2(More)
Understanding the factors that impede immune responses to persistent viruses is essential in designing therapies for HIV infection. Mice infected with LCMV clone-13 have persistent high-level viremia and a dysfunctional immune response. Interleukin-7, a cytokine that is critical for immune development and homeostasis, was used here to promote immunity(More)
Lymph nodes prevent the systemic dissemination of pathogens such as viruses that infect peripheral tissues after penetrating the body's surface barriers. They are also the staging ground of adaptive immune responses to pathogen-derived antigens. It is unclear how virus particles are cleared from afferent lymph and presented to cognate B cells to induce(More)
Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a family of proteins having a unique distribution in the brain and are thought to be important in buffering intracellular calcium. Glutamate neurotoxicity is a process by which the over-activation of glutamate receptors can cause the influx of excessive extracellular calcium and neuronal cell death. It has been proposed(More)
The serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinase SGK1 is regulated by alterations of cell volume, whereby cell shrinkage increases and cell swelling decreases the transcription, expression and activity of SGK1. The kinase is expressed in all human tissues studied including the brain. The present study was performed to localize the sites of SGK1 transcription(More)
Cellular homeostasis is controlled by pathways that balance cell death with survival. Mcl-1 ubiquitin ligase E3 (Mule) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the proapoptotic molecule p53 for polyubiquitination and degradation. To elucidate the role of Mule in B lymphocyte homeostasis, B cell-specific Mule knockout (BMKO) mice were generated using the(More)
The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage(More)
The signaling adaptor TNFR-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) is specifically lost from virus-specific CD8 T cells during the chronic phase of infection with HIV in humans or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 in mice. In contrast, TRAF1 is maintained at higher levels in virus-specific T cells of HIV controllers or after acute LCMV infection. TRAF1(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation(More)