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We report three novel demonstrations: 1. Coplanar electrowetting 2. Electrowetting on a printed circuit board (PCB) and 3. Transport and mixing in an " open " microfluidic substrate. Similar to " soft " lithography which enabled many researchers to easily prototype and experiment with continuous-flow microfluidics, this work allows researchers to easily… (More)
—Thermal management is critical for integrated circuit (IC) design. With each new IC technology generation, feature sizes decrease, while operating speeds and package densities increase. These factors contribute to elevated die temperatures detrimental to circuit performance and reliability. Furthermore, hot spots due to spatially nonuniform heat flux in… (More)
&OVERHEATING IS A major cause of IC failure during system operation. Although the semiconductor industry continues to double transistor density every two years (as Moore's law predicted), the power dissipa-tion associated with this performance gain is also increasing. This is not a new or surprising trend, but ICs are quickly reaching temperatures that… (More)
Smith et al. (*) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 938 days.