Philip W. Bateman

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Caudal autotomy, the ability to shed the tail, is common in lizards as a response to attempted predation. Since Arnold’s substantial review of caudal autotomy as a defence in reptiles 20 years ago, our understanding of the costs associated with tail loss has increased dramatically. In this paper, we review the incidence of caudal autotomy among lizards(More)
Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. Studies investigating sex ratio variation in mammals, including humans, have obtained notoriously inconsistent results, except when maternal condition is measured around conception. Several(More)
Autotomy is defined herein as the shedding of a body part, where (1) the loss of the body part is defensive (autotomy helps prevent the whole animal from being compromised and is in response to external stimuli); (2) shearing occurs by an intrinsic mechanism along a breakage plane (there has been selection for certain body parts to be pulled off easily);(More)
Typically, sexually selected traits show positive allometry and high coefficients of variation (CV). To date, many studies on the allometry of genitalia have focused on insects. In addition, studies have largely ignored the potential for sexual selection on female genitalia, despite male and female structures presumably co-evolving. Insects tend to show(More)
Many lizard species will shed their tail as a defensive response (e.g., to escape a putative predator or aggressive conspecific). This caudal autotomy incurs a number of costs as a result of loss of the tail itself, loss of resources (i.e., stored in the tail or due to the cost of regeneration), and altered behavior. Few studies have examined the metabolic(More)
Both male and female field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) autotomize front (tympanal) limbs more slowly than hind limbs. Arguably, this pattern could reflect possible differences in the mechanism of limb autotomy. However, we demonstrate that, for females, limb autotomy is also dependent on their mating status: virgin females autotomize front legs(More)
The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body temperature (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the(More)
Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form(More)