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An ecomorphological analysis of the tallgrass prairie of central North America divided representative species of the native grassland flora into eight guilds or groups of species with similar life-form, phenology, and ecology. The guilds, segregated by multivariate analysis, are: (1) warm-season graminoids with Kranz anatomy and the Hatch-Slack(More)
Eight Pleistocene wood rat middens at elevations of 1200, 880, and 600 meters in the Chihuahuan Desert contain abundant macrofossils of pinyon pine, juniper, shrubby liveoak, and Opuntia, together with smaller quantities of Agave lecheguilla and other xerophytes of existing desert vegetation, which in dicate a xerophilous woodland vegetation in the(More)
Pinus flexilis (limber pine) is patchily distributed within its large geographic range; it is mainly restricted to high elevations in the Rocky Mountains and the Basin and Range region of western North America. We examined patterns of allozyme diversity in 30 populations from throughout the species' range. Overall genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.186) was high(More)
Seventeen ancient wood-rat middens, ranging in radiocarbon age from 7400 to 19,500 years and to older than 40,000 years, have been uncovered in the northeastern, north-central, southeastern, and southwestern sectors of the Mohave Desert. Excellent preservation of macroscopic plant materials (including stems, buds, leaves, fruits, and seeds) enables(More)
Carbon istotope ratios of modern, 10,000-year-old, and more than 40,000-year-old Atriplex confertifolia (C(4)) material from Nevada caves indicate that the C(4) photosynthetic pathway was operating in these plants over that period. Samples of a plant with crassulacean acid metabolism, Opuntia polyacantha, were also measured, and a shift in the 8(13)C value(More)
Leafy twigs and seeds of juniper are abundant in nine ancient Neotoma middens discovered in low, arid, desert ranges devoid of junipers, near Frenchman Flat, Nevada. Existing vegetation is creosote bush and other desert shrubs. Twelve radiocarbon dates suggest that the middens were deposited between 7800 to more than 40,000 years ago. Dominance of Utah(More)
Nonriparian woodlands occur on escarpments and other topographic breaks throughout the grassland province of central North America. Grassland vegetation is mainly correlated with gently sloping or flat terrain mantled by deep, transported soils of Pleistocene or younger age. Paleobotanical evidence suggests that extensive treeless grasslands may be a(More)
Fundamental limits on reflection losses are set by internal material losses associated with the Urbach tail near a band gap and by thermodynamic density fluctuations in fabrication. In materials such as SiO(2) and TiO(2), these limits are of the order of parts in 10(9). The current quality of supercavity mirrors, in contrast to that of optical fibers, is(More)