Philip T. Smith

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Two experiments investigated the development of the word length effect in children aged 4 to 10 years, comparing auditory and visual stimuli. The question addressed was whether word length effects emerged earlier with auditory presentation or visual presentation, or whether they emerged at the same age regardless of presentation modality. Results provided(More)
The influence of item familiarity upon memory span was examined in adults and children aged 5, 7, and 10 years by comparing the recall of words and nonwords. Using a probed recall task, both item recall and position recall were tested. The effect of familiarity upon item recall was found to develop with age, from no effects in the 5-year-olds to significant(More)
The utility of an "ecologically rational" recognition-based decision rule in multichoice decision problems is analyzed, varying the type of judgment required (greater or lesser). The maximum size and range of a counterintuitive advantage associated with recognition-based judgment (the "less-is-more effect") is identified for a range of cue validity values.(More)
The principal novel feature of this paper is the notion that a coherent memory can be synthesised from a set of partially coherent memory fragments by maximising a particular function, Harmony (Smolensky, 1986). The appeal of Harmony is that it fulfils two functions: it is at the heart of the synthesis algorithm and it provides a natural measure for(More)
We report two studies of the distinct effects that a word's age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency have on the mental lexicon. In the first study, a purely statistical analysis, we show that AoA and frequency are related in different ways to the phonological form and imageability of different words. In the second study, three groups of participants (34(More)
The effect of long-term knowledge upon performance in short-term memory tasks was examined for children from 5 to 10 years of age. The emergence of a lexicality effect, in which familiar words were recalled more accurately than unfamiliar words, was found to depend upon the nature of the memory task. Lexicality effects were interpreted as reflecting the use(More)
Inferences consistent with “recognition-based” decision-making may be drawn for various reasons other than recognition alone. We demonstrate that, for 2-alternative forced-choice decision tasks, less-is-more effects (reduced performance with additional learning) are not restricted to recognition-based inference but can also be seen in circumstances where(More)
Metrology applications commonly require non-contact, capacitive sensors for displacement measurements due to their nanometer resolution. In some metrology applications, for example, the measurement of roundness and spindle error motion, the displacements of stationary and rotating cylindrical artifacts are measured. Error from using a conventionally(More)
Capacitive displacement sensors are widely used in precision manufacturing and metrology because they measure displacements with nanometer resolution. Prior literature usually treats capacitive sensors consisting of electrodes arranged as parallel plates. In this work, the target electrode is spherical, which is common in machine tool metrology, spindle(More)
Inference on the basis of recognition alone is assumed to occur prior to accessing further information (Pachur & Hertwig, 2006). A counterintuitive result of this is the " less-is-more " effect: a drop in the accuracy with which choices are made as to which of two or more items scores highest on a given criterion as more items are learned (Frosch, Beaman &(More)