Philip T. Smith

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The utility of an "ecologically rational" recognition-based decision rule in multichoice decision problems is analyzed, varying the type of judgment required (greater or lesser). The maximum size and range of a counterintuitive advantage associated with recognition-based judgment (the "less-is-more effect") is identified for a range of cue validity values.(More)
Although the National Adult Reading Test (NART) is widely used to estimate premorbid intellectual ability in adults with possible or probable dementia, it may be less resilient to the progress of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) than was initially assumed. This paper reports performance at four annual assessments of 78 people with either autopsy confirmed (n = 50)(More)
A short memory test that provides analogs of everyday activities was used to investigate the relationship between everyday memory, cognitive abilities, participation in social, domestic, and leisure pursuits, and health status among 94 community-dwelling people aged between 70 and 93 years. Multiple regression analysis revealed that while fluid intelligence(More)
Two experiments investigated the development of the word length effect in children aged 4 to 10 years, comparing auditory and visual stimuli. The question addressed was whether word length effects emerged earlier with auditory presentation or visual presentation, or whether they emerged at the same age regardless of presentation modality. Results provided(More)
The influence of item familiarity upon memory span was examined in adults and children aged 5, 7, and 10 years by comparing the recall of words and nonwords. Using a probed recall task, both item recall and position recall were tested. The effect of familiarity upon item recall was found to develop with age, from no effects in the 5-year-olds to significant(More)
Inferences consistent with " recognition-based " decision-making may be drawn for various reasons other than recognition alone. We demonstrate that, for 2-alternative forced-choice decision tasks, less-is-more effects (reduced performance with additional learning) are not restricted to recognition-based inference but can also be seen in circumstances where(More)
The effect of long-term knowledge upon performance in short-term memory tasks was examined for children from 5 to 10 years of age. The emergence of a lexicality effect, in which familiar words were recalled more accurately than unfamiliar words, was found to depend upon the nature of the memory task. Lexicality effects were interpreted as reflecting the use(More)
The study investigated the relationship between depressive feelings and coping amongst older widowed men and women. Participants were interviewed about their affective experiences of widowhood and completed two depression questionnaire assessments, the Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Scale (SAD) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).(More)
Understanding the relationship between age and prospective memory may be increased by studying the distribution and constituents of incorrect responses. Failure to perform the right activity at the right time may manifest itself as an 'error of omission', in which no response is made at the critical moment, or an 'error of commission', in which the intended(More)