Philip S Stewart

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Bacteria that attach to surfaces aggregate in a hydrated polymeric matrix of their own synthesis to form biofilms. Formation of these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antimicrobial agents are at the root of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections. Studies of biofilms have revealed differentiated, structured groups of cells with(More)
Biofilms contain bacterial cells that are in a wide range of physiological states. Within a biofilm population, cells with diverse genotypes and phenotypes that express distinct metabolic pathways, stress responses and other specific biological activities are juxtaposed. The mechanisms that contribute to this genetic and physiological heterogeneity include(More)
Modern medicine is facing the spread of biofilm-related infections. Bacterial biofilms are difficult to detect in routine diagnostics and are inherently tolerant to host defenses and antibiotic therapies. In addition, biofilms facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance by promoting horizontal gene transfer. We review current concepts of biofilm(More)
Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic(More)
Quorum sensing (QS) governs the production of virulence factors and the architecture and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) resistance of biofilm-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa QS requires two transcriptional activator proteins known as LasR and RhlR and their cognate autoinducers PAI-1 (N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone) and PAI-2(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to compare the synthesis and metabolism of VLDL1 and VLDL2 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and nondiabetic subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS We used a novel multicompartmental model to simultaneously determine the kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B and triglyceride (TG) in VLDL1 and VLDL2 after a bolus injection of(More)
The penetration and overall efficacy of six mouthrinse actives was evaluated by using an in vitro flow cell oral biofilm model. The technique involved preloading biofilm cells with a green fluorescent dye that leaked out as the cells were permeabilized by a treatment. The loss of green color, and of biomass, was observed by time-lapse microscopy during 60(More)
Bacteria that attach to a surface and grow as a biofilm are protected from killing by antibiotics. Reduced antibiotic susceptibility contributes to the persistence of biofilm infections such as those associated with implanted devices. The protective mechanisms at work in biofilms appear to be distinct from those that are responsible for conventional(More)