Learn More
The opioid antagonist activities of two bivalent ligands, BNI and nor-BNI, have been evaluated in smooth muscle preparations and in mice. Both ligands are highly potent and selective as kappa opioid receptor antagonists, with relatively feeble blocking activity at mu and delta opioid receptors. BNI and nor-BNI represent the first highly selective kappa(More)
We showed previously that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats regulates immobility in the forced swim test (FST), an assay used to study depression. Because CREB regulates expression of dynorphin (which acts at kappa-opioid receptors) in NAc neurons, these findings raised the possibility that(More)
Previously, we reported on an opioid antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI), that had high selectivity for kappa opioid receptors in smooth muscle preparations. In this study, nor-BNI administered either s.c. or i.c.v. was shown to antagonize significantly the antinociceptive effects of the kappa opioid agonists, ethylketazocine and U-50,488H at doses(More)
Kappa opioid agonists attenuate some neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine and are being considered as potential treatments for cocaine dependence. The present study examined the effects of two kappa opioid agonists, the benzomorphan ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and the arylacetamide U50,488, on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Monkeys(More)
In this study naltrindole (NTI) and its benzofuran derivative (NTB) were studied for their antagonist activity against various delta opioid receptor agonists in the tail-flick antinociceptive assay in mice. The antinociceptive ED50 of i.c.v. administered DSLET [(D-Ser2, Leu5, Thr6)enkephalin] was shifted about 4-fold by either s.c. NTB or i.c.v. NTI(More)
This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of intended use. In this review, scientific data relevant to(More)
There has been much speculation regarding the functional relevance of G protein-coupled receptor heterodimers, primarily because demonstrating their existence in vivo has proven to be a considerable challenge. Here we show that the opioid agonist ligand 6'-guanidinonaltrindole (6'-GNTI) has the unique property of selectively activating only opioid receptor(More)
Because morphine has been shown to alter the function of human T lymphocytes and monocytes, we postulated that morphine would promote the growth of HIV-1 in these cells. To test this hypothesis, a coculture assay was used consisting of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal donors and PBMC which had been(More)
Antagonists selective for either kappa- [e.g. nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI)] and mu- (e.g. beta-funaltrexamine) opioid receptors have previously been shown to reduce both kappa- and mu-opioid-induced feeding. In the present studies, the anorectic effects of GNTI, a newly synthesized antagonist selective for kappa-opioid receptors, were studied in rats. GNTI(More)