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The evolution of territorial behavior requires that the benefits of territoriality outweigh the costs. The costs are primarily those of territorial defense against encroaching neighbors or against floaters seeking to establish their own territory. One way to reduce the cost of defense might be to restrict serious conflict to encounters with those posing the… (More)
We have recently developed cell line models that express the endogenous rat preprotachykinin-A (rPPT) gene and support reporter gene expression directed by the rPPT promoter. These are the neuronal derived cell line NF2C and the pancreatic cell lines RINm5F and a derivative RIN-1027-B2. Reporter gene activity in these cell lines is similar to that observed… (More)
Recognition systems play a key role in a range of biological processes, including mate choice, immune defence and altruistic behaviour. Social insects provide an excellent model for studying recognition systems because workers need to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates, enabling them to direct altruistic behaviour towards closer kin and to… (More)
The discovery of a non-reproductive soldier caste in a clonally reproducing trematode greatly extends the taxonomic distribution of eusociality and reaffirms the importance of relatedness in the evolution of reproductive altruism.