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The red blood cell membrane (RBCM) is a primary model for animal cell plasma membranes. One of its major organizing centers is the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3), which links multiple proteins to the membrane. Included among its peripheral protein ligands are ankyrin (the major bridge to the spectrin-actin skeleton), protein 4. 1, protein 4.2,(More)
Receptors for the vitamin folic acid are frequently overexpressed on epithelial cancer cells. To examine whether this overexpression might be exploited to specifically deliver liposome-encapsulated drug molecules in vitro, folate-targeted liposomes were prepared by incorporating 0.1 mol% of a folate-polyethyleneglycol-distearoylphatidylethanolamine(More)
Stomatal opening provides access to inner leaf tissues for many plant pathogens, so narrowing stomatal apertures may be advantageous for plant defense. We investigated how guard cells respond to elicitors that can be generated from cell walls of plants or pathogens during pathogen infection. The effect of oligogalacturonic acid (OGA), a degradation product(More)
The receptor for folic acid constitutes a useful target for tumor-specific drug delivery, primarily because: (1) it is upregulated in many human cancers, including malignancies of the ovary, brain, kidney, breast, myeloid cells and lung, (2) access to the folate receptor in those normal tissues that express it can be severely limited due to its location on(More)
GTP-binding proteins have been shown to serve as second messengers in the transduction of hormone signals across animal cell plasma membranes. We present here three lines of evidence to demonstrate that GTP-binding proteins are also involved in the elicitation of the defense response of cultured soybean cells. First, the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of an(More)
The folate receptor (FR) is a valuable therapeutic target that is highly expressed on a variety of cancers. The current development of folate-targeted cancer therapies has created the need for quantitating functional FRs in clinical specimens. In this article, we report on the creation of a highly sensitive radioactive binding method for quantitatively(More)
The oxidative burst is likely the most rapid defense response mounted by a plant under pathogen attack, and the generated oxidant species may be essential to several subsequent defense responses. In our effort to characterize the signal-transduction pathways leading to rapid H2O2/O2- biosynthesis, we have examined the role of protein phosphorylation in this(More)
Gold nanorods excited at 830 nm on a far-field laser-scanning microscope produced strong two-photon luminescence (TPL) intensities, with a cos(4) dependence on the incident polarization. The TPL excitation spectrum can be superimposed onto the longitudinal plasmon band, indicating a plasmon-enhanced two-photon absorption cross section. The TPL signal from a(More)