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The red blood cell membrane (RBCM) is a primary model for animal cell plasma membranes. One of its major organizing centers is the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (cdb3), which links multiple proteins to the membrane. Included among its peripheral protein ligands are ankyrin (the major bridge to the spectrin-actin skeleton), protein 4. 1, protein 4.2,(More)
Stimulation of cultured plant cells with elicitors of the defense response leads to the rapid destruction of a variety of water-soluble compounds including indoleacetic acid and certain fluorescent dyes. This destructive activity, which is often vigorously manifested within 5 minutes of elicitor addition, is shown to derive from the rapid production of(More)
The receptor for folic acid constitutes a useful target for tumor-specific drug delivery, primarily because: (1) it is upregulated in many human cancers, including malignancies of the ovary, brain, kidney, breast, myeloid cells and lung, (2) access to the folate receptor in those normal tissues that express it can be severely limited due to its location on(More)
Effective pathogenesis by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum requires the secretion of oxalic acid. Studies were conducted to determine whether oxalate aids pathogen compatibility by modulating the oxidative burst of the host plant. Inoculation of tobacco leaves with an oxalate-deficient nonpathogenic mutant of S. sclerotiorum induced measurable oxidant(More)
Although immunological homologues of erythrocyte membrane proteins have been individually discovered in a wide variety of tissues and cultured cells, the major structural components of the membrane have not yet been demonstrated simultaneously in the same cell type. Thus, considerable uncertainty continues to exist concerning whether the red cell homologues(More)
Receptors for the vitamin folic acid are frequently overexpressed on epithelial cancer cells. To examine whether this overexpression might be exploited to specifically deliver liposome-encapsulated drug molecules in vitro, folate-targeted liposomes were prepared by incorporating 0.1 mol% of a folate-polyethyleneglycol-distearoylphatidylethanolamine(More)
Stomatal opening provides access to inner leaf tissues for many plant pathogens, so narrowing stomatal apertures may be advantageous for plant defense. We investigated how guard cells respond to elicitors that can be generated from cell walls of plants or pathogens during pathogen infection. The effect of oligogalacturonic acid (OGA), a degradation product(More)
Free folic acid is believed to enter some cells by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis at membrane invaginations termed caveolae. Folate conjugated macromolecules also enter cells by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis, but their site of entry has never been conclusively identified. In this paper, we show that internalization of folate-macromolecule(More)