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PILATUS is a silicon hybrid pixel detector system, operating in single-photon-counting mode, that has been developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut for the needs of macromolecular crystallography at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). A calibrated PILATUS module has been characterized with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The influence of charge sharing on the(More)
The conducting interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures has been studied by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. From the Ti 2p signal and its angle dependence we derive that the thickness of the electron gas is much smaller than the probing depth of 4 nm and that the carrier densities vary with increasing number of LaAlO3 overlayers. Our results point(More)
We report the first complete determination, using surface x-ray diffraction, of the surface structure of TiO2-terminated SrTiO3(001), both at room temperature in vacuum, and also hot, under typical conditions used for thin film growth. The cold structure consists of a mixture of a (1x1) relaxation and (2x1) and (2x2) reconstructions. The latter disappear(More)
The structure of a single layer of graphene on Ru(0001) has been studied using surface x-ray diffraction. A surprising superstructure containing 1250 carbon atoms has been determined, whereby 25 x 25 graphene unit cells lie on 23 x 23 unit cells of Ru. Each supercell contains 2 x 2 crystallographically inequivalent subcells caused by corrugation. Strong(More)
Crystalline Ti:sapphire (Ti:Al(2)O(3)) thin films were grown at low temperatures upon Al(2)O(3) (0001) substrates by reactive crossed-beam laser ablation at 248 nm by use of a liquid Ti-Al alloy target and O(2) . The films were investigated ex situ by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry.(More)
The complete atomic structure of a five-monolayer film of LaAlO3 on SrTiO3 has been determined for the first time by surface x-ray diffraction in conjunction with the coherent Bragg rod analysis phase-retrieval method and further structural refinement. Cationic mixing at the interface results in dilatory distortions and the formation of metallic(More)
The physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between insulating SrTiO(3) and LaAlO(3) have remained a contentious subject since its discovery in 2004. Opinion is divided between an intrinsic mechanism involving the build-up of an internal electric potential due to the polar discontinuity at the(More)
Two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductors have found use in applications such as optoelectronics, high-power radio-frequency and magnetoelectronic devices. The ability to grow heterostructures of oxides exhibiting similar effects is a significant step towards the fabrication of all-oxide devices. Here, we give an overview of recent studies of(More)
The interfaces of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 and (LaAlO3)(x)(SrTiO3)(1-x)/SrTiO3 heterostructures have been investigated by soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for different layer thicknesses across the insulator-to-metal interface transition. The valence band and Fermi edge were probed using resonant photoemission across the Ti L(2,3) absorption edge. The presence of(More)
The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new(More)