Philip R. K. Turnbull

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PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) applied to the periocular area for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in a prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled, paired-eye study. METHODS Twenty-eight participants underwent IPL treatment, with homogeneously sequenced light pulses delivered to one eye and placebo treatment to the(More)
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the relative roles of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in pupillary hippus. Methods We used a paired-eye control study design with three cohorts receiving either 1.0% tropicamide (PNS antagonist) in light (TL), 1.0% tropicamide in dark (TD), or 10% phenylephrine (SNS) in(More)
Although the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is a particularly useful way of characterising functional vision, its measurement relies on observers making reliable perceptual reports. Such procedures can be challenging when testing children. Here we describe a system for measuring the CSF using an automated analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN); an(More)
Eyes with refractive error have reduced visual acuity and are rarely found in the wild. Vertebrate eyes possess a visually guided emmetropisation process within the retina which detects the sign of defocus, and regulates eye growth to align the retina at the focal plane of the eye's optical components to avoid the development of refractive error, such as(More)
Foreword The series of Handbooks in Central Banking has grown out of the activities of the Bank of England's Centre for Central Banking Studies in arranging and delivering training courses, seminars, workshops and technical assistance for central banks and central bankers of countries across the globe. Drawing upon that experience, the Handbooks are(More)
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