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The vast majority of toxicological papers summarize experimental data as bar charts of means with error bars. While these graphics are easy to generate, they often obscure essential features of the data, such as outliers or subgroups of individuals reacting differently to a treatment. In particular, raw values are of prime importance in toxicology;(More)
Neem products have been used frequently as an alternative to synthetic pesticides, because of their insecticidal, insect antifeedant, and growth-regulating effects. Moreover, new formulations are continually being developed and therefore, they have to be evaluated for their efficacy and persistence. In this regard, two soil-applied products-a liquid-based(More)
Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack(More)
Comparing diversities between groups is a task biologists are frequently faced with, for example in ecological field trials or when dealing with metagenomics data. However, researchers often waver about which measure of diversity to choose as there is a multitude of approaches available. As Jost (2008, Molecular Ecology, 17, 4015) has pointed out, widely(More)
This study evaluated the efficacy of the foliage-dwelling predator Orius laevigatus, soil applied entomopathogens and azadirachtin alone and in combinations for controlling western flower thrips (WFT). Evaluated products were Nemastar® Steinernema carpocapsae (E-nema) and O. laevigatus (Re-natur), Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE-69 and NeemAzal-T(More)
Conducting clinical trials in trauma care is challenging. As new treatments become available, we are faced with the dilemma of how to confirm their effectiveness, and strengthen the evidence base. Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard, but target groups in trauma care are often small and specialized, making the classical approach to trial(More)
Crossover studies are frequently used in clinical research as they allow within-subject comparisons instead of the between-subject evaluation of parallel group designs. Estimation of interesting parameters from such designs is, however, not trivial. We provide three methods for estimating treatment effects and associated standard errors from an AB/BA(More)
Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this(More)
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