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The physicochemical and pharmacokinetic factors involved in transfer of drugs into breast milk are reviewed. Passage of drugs into milk can best be viewed as a two-compartment system. Various ratios of the drug concentration values in the two compartments and ratios of maternal-to-infant intake have been described. Knowledge of the limitations of these(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite the manufacturer's recommendation that fluoxetine not be used by women while breastfeeding, many women choose to do so. There is little information available in the literature to suggest that this practice is or is not safe. The purpose of this study was to examine weight gain in infants who are breastfed by mothers who take fluoxetine,(More)
PURPOSE A vancomycin population pharmacokinetic prediction model for adult and elderly patients was developed using NONMEM. The predictability of the model was studied and compared with ten other models. METHODS Data were collected from routine care of 141 subjects. NONMEM was used to derive a population model. After internal evaluation using the(More)
The use of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy is reviewed. The pharmacokinetics of THC is discussed, and the agent's effects on the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems are presented. The toxicology, potential hazards, and(More)
Medication use during breastfeeding shortens the duration of breastfeeding often because of overly cautious information given by healthcare providers. No comprehensive review of the literature on infant adverse reactions from drugs in breastmilk has been published. All published studies and case reports on adverse events in infants caused by medications(More)
Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic frequently prescribed in the emergency department. Meperidine is most often administered intramuscularly or intravenously, due to its poor oral bioavailability, and is metabolized extensively by the liver. Analgesic effects usually last 3-4 hours with parenteral administration, and some adverse effects such as(More)
OBJECTIVE Assessment of best available evidence for tolerability of sumatriptan after inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. BACKGROUND Migraine's demography suggests that inadvertent exposure to acute therapies is likely during the earliest undiagnosed stages of pregnancy. The tolerability of such therapies under these conditions is not amenable to(More)
Use of plant and drug products to enhance lactation is widespread, and numerous papers have been published in the medical literature claiming efficacy for various products. This paper will review and evaluate the published literature on the most widely used pharmaceuticals that are used as galactagogues. Breastfeeding physiology is reviewed with the aim of(More)