Philip N. Howard

Learn More
It has been 15 years since the last wave of democratization. But as a region, North Africa and the Middle East were noticeably devoid of popular democracy movements—until the early months of 2011. Democratization movements had existed long before technologies like mobile phones and the Internet came to these countries. But with these technologies, people(More)
The mixed cell agglutination reaction was studied in 22 patients with stage A transitional cell bladder tumors. The absence of antigens on the original tumor was found to correlate with development of invasive cancer on followup. The presence of antigens on the original tumor correlated with failure to develop stage B or greater disease within 5 to 14 years(More)
In a cytogenetic, molecular, and clinical study of patients with autosomal supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC), 6 out of 72 (8.3%) were shown by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to be derived from chromosome 22. PCR microsatellite analysis and FISH using primers and cosmids from proximal 22q showed 3 of the 6 to contain euchromatin. The first, a(More)
The high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), remain among the most deadly malignancies. Therapies that effectively target and kill tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in these cancers should translate to improved patient survival. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors serve as(More)
Bots are social media accounts that automate interaction with other users, and they are active on the StrongerInBrexit conversation happening over Twitter. These automated scripts generate content through these platforms and then interact with people. Political bots are automated accounts that are particularly active on public policy issues, elections, and(More)
Pundits and scholars laud online campaigning for its potential to democratize politics and praise the 2008 Barack Obama campaign for using new information technologies to mobilize voters. Underneath these extraordinary forms of technologically-enabled political participation, however, is an infrastructure and industry for political data that has received(More)