Philip N. Ainslie

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Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its distribution are highly sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of arterial CO(2) (Pa(CO(2))). This physiological response, termed cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, is a vital homeostatic function that helps regulate and maintain central pH and, therefore, affects the respiratory central chemoreceptor stimulus. CBF(More)
It is known that cerebral blood flow declines with age in sedentary adults, although previous studies have involved small sample sizes, making the exact estimate of decline imprecise and the effects of possible moderator variables unknown. Animal studies indicate that aerobic exercise can elevate cerebral blood flow; however, this possibility has not been(More)
The response of cerebral vasculature to exercise is different from other peripheral vasculature; it has a small vascular bed and is strongly regulated by cerebral autoregulation and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (Pa(CO(2))). In contrast to other organs, the traditional thinking is that total cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains relatively(More)
Despite the importance of blood flow on brainstem control of respiratory and autonomic function, little is known about regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during changes in arterial blood gases.We quantified: (1) anterior and posterior CBF and reactivity through a wide range of steady-state changes in the partial pressures of CO2 (PaCO2) and O2 (PaO2) in(More)
We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O(2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12%(More)
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is a critical process for the maintenance of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. Assessment of CA is frequently used for experimental research and in the diagnosis, monitoring, or prognosis of cerebrovascular disease; however, despite the extensive use and reference to static CA, a valid quantification of "normal" CA has not(More)
The influence of severe passive heat stress and hypohydration (Hypo) on cardiorespiratory and cerebrovascular function is not known. We hypothesized that 1) heating-induced hypocapnia and peripheral redistribution of cardiac output (Q) would compromise blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and cerebral oxygenation; 2) Hypo would(More)
This review includes an historical overview of the techniques for measuring energy expenditure (EE). Following this overview, the "gold standard" method of measuring EE, the doubly labelled water (DLW) method, is emphasised. Other methods, such as direct calorimetry, indirect calorimetry systems, heart rate and EE relationships, questionnaires and activity(More)
We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (<48 h) ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) because this still proceeds in the absence of such alkalosis; (2) for VAH of longer(More)
We examined potential mechanisms (autonomic function, hypotension, and cerebral hypoperfusion) responsible for orthostatic intolerance following prolonged exercise. Autonomic function and cerebral hemodynamics were monitored in seven athletes pre-, post- (<4 h), and 48 h following a mountain marathon [42.2 km; cumulative gain approximately 1,000 m;(More)