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Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis.(More)
Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are commonly used for the analysis of correlated data. However, use of quadratic inference functions (QIFs) is becoming popular because it increases efficiency relative to GEE when the working covariance structure is misspecified. Although shown to be advantageous in the literature, the impacts of covariates and(More)
In this paper, we give focus to cluster randomized trials, also known as group randomized trials, which randomize clusters, or groups, of subjects to different trial arms, such as intervention or control. Outcomes from subjects within the same cluster tend to exhibit an exchangeable correlation measured by the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC).(More)
BACKGROUND Intensive, task-oriented motor training has been associated with neuroplastic reorganization and improved upper extremity movement function after stroke. However, to optimize such training for people with moderate-to-severe movement impairment, pharmacological modulation of neuroplasticity may be needed as an adjuvant intervention. OBJECTIVE(More)
Group Randomized Trials (GRTs) randomize groups of people to treatment or control arms instead of individually randomizing subjects. When each subject has a binary outcome, over-dispersed binomial data may result, quantified as an intra-cluster correlation (ICC). Typically, GRTs have a small number, bin, of independent clusters, each of which can be quite(More)
Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F)(More)
BACKGROUND Intensive motor training is a therapeutic intervention that supports recovery of movement function after stroke by capitalizing on the brain's capacity for neuroplastic change. Peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are neuromodulation techniques that can upregulate neuroplasticity and, in turn, enhance outcomes(More)
Group randomized trials (GRTs) randomize groups, or clusters, of people to intervention or control arms. To test for the effectiveness of the intervention when subject-level outcomes are binary, and while fitting a marginal model that adjusts for cluster-level covariates and utilizes a logistic link, we develop a pseudo-Wald statistic to improve inference.(More)
Most of the variance in diurnal cortisol is attributable to intraindividual variability (IIV), defined as relatively short-term, reversible changes. Multiple methods for measuring IIV have been proposed, and some have already been applied to cortisol IIV. In the present review, measurement methods are described and applied to simulated cortisol data with(More)