Philip M. Elks

Learn More
Hypoxic signaling is a central modulator of cellular physiology in cancer. Core members of oxygen-sensing pathway including the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) and the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors have been intensively studied, but improved organismal models might speed advances for both pathobiologic understanding(More)
Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination.(More)
Neutrophil lifespan and function are regulated by hypoxia via components of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)/von Hippel Lindau/hydroxylase pathway, including specific roles for HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase-3. HIF-2α has both distinct and overlapping biological roles with HIF-1α and has not previously been studied in the context of neutrophil biology. We(More)
Many pathways regulating blood formation have been elucidated, yet how each coordinates with embryonic biophysiology to modulate the spatiotemporal production of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is currently unresolved. Here, we report that glucose metabolism impacts the onset and magnitude of HSC induction in vivo. In zebrafish, transient elevations in(More)
As we begin to understand the signals that drive chemotaxis in vivo, it is becoming clear that there is a complex interplay of chemotactic factors, which changes over time as the inflammatory response evolves. New animal models such as transgenic lines of zebrafish, which are near transparent and where the neutrophils express a green fluorescent protein,(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a major world health problem. The production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a potent cytostatic and cytotoxic defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the protective role of RNS during Mtb infection remains(More)
Neutrophils must be removed from inflammatory sites for inflammation to resolve. Recent work in zebrafish has shown neutrophils can migrate away from inflammatory sites, as well as die in situ. The signals regulating the process of reverse migration are of considerable interest, but remain unknown. We wished to study the behaviour of neutrophils during(More)
Neutrophil function is thought to be regulated, in large part, by limitation of lifespan by apoptosis. A number of studies suggest that circulating neutrophils have a half-life of approximately 6 hours, although contradictory evidence exists. Measuring tissue neutrophil lifespan, however, is more problematic. It is thought that tissue neutrophils survive(More)
Stimulation of neutrophil reverse migration presents an attractive, alternative therapeutic pathway to driving inflammation resolution. However, little is known about whether the activity of wound-experienced neutrophils is altered and whether encouraging dispersal of such neutrophils back into the body may have undesirable consequences. This study used a(More)
A low level of tissue oxygen (hypoxia) is a physiological feature of a wide range of diseases, from cancer to infection. Cellular hypoxia is sensed by oxygen-sensitive hydroxylase enzymes, which regulate the protein stability of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) transcription factors. When stabilised, HIF-α binds with its cofactors to HIF-responsive(More)