Philip Lin Kiat Yap

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For many RNA viruses, relatively recent times of origin of extant viruses are implied by the high rate of substitution observed in longitudinal studies. However, extrapolation of short-term rates of substitution can give misleading estimates of times of divergence. We show here that the common ancestor of different types of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is older(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) showed substantial nucleotide sequence diversity distributed throughout the viral genome, with many variants showing only 68 to 79% overall sequence similarity to one another. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences derived from part of the gene encoding a non-structural protein (NS-5) has provided evidence for six major(More)
BACKGROUND A newly discovered DNA virus, transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV), has been implicated as a cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. We investigated the frequency of TTV viraemia in UK blood donors, and the extent to which TTV contaminates blood products such as factor VIII and IX clotting factors. We also investigated the possible aetiological role(More)
Isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) show considerable nucleotide sequence variability throughout the genome. Comparisons of complete genome sequences have been used as the basis of classification of HCV into a number of genotypes that show 67 to 77% sequence similarity. In order to investigate whether sequence relationships between genotypes are equivalent(More)
We have analysed the pattern of nucleotide sequence variability in the 5' non-coding region (5' NCR) of geographically dispersed variants of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in this region indicated the existence of a new virus type, provisionally termed type 4, the identity of which was confirmed by further analysis of the more(More)
BACKGROUND Although cerebral small-vessel disease has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cerebral microcirculation is difficult to visualize directly in vivo. Because the retina provides a noninvasive window to assess the microcirculation, we determined whether quantitatively measured retinal microvascular parameters are(More)
Variation in the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in detail by comparing 314 5'NCR sequences of viruses of genotypes 1 to 6. Evidence was obtained for the existence of associations between particular 5'NCR sequence motifs and virus types and subtypes. No recombination was observed between the 5'NCR and coding regions(More)
In a retrospective investigation of possible transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by anti-rhesus D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in 1977, we compared variants infecting anti-D recipients in Ireland of one of the implicated batches with those of epidemiologically unrelated HCV-infected individuals. All 100 of the recipients of the batch investigated to date(More)
BACKGROUND With an ever-growing ageing population, dementia is fast becoming the chronic disease of the 21st century. Elderly people affected with dementia progressively lose their autonomy as they encounter problems in their Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Hence, they need supervision and assistance from their family members or professional caregivers,(More)