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The concept of canopy spectral invariants expresses the observation that simple algebraic combinations of leaf and canopy spectral transmittance and reflectance become wavelength independent and determine a small set of canopy structure specific variables. This set includes the canopy interceptance, the recollision and the escape probabilities. These(More)
This paper presents a new method for constructing quickly and automatically precision tree models from point clouds of the trunk and branches obtained by terrestrial laser scanning. The input of the method is a point cloud of a single tree scanned from multiple positions. The surface of the visible parts of the tree is robustly reconstructed by making a(More)
Keywords: Terrestrial laser scanner SALCA Forest canopy structure Full-waveform Dual-wavelength a b s t r a c t The development of a dual-wavelength full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner to measure the three-dimensional structure of forest canopies is described, and field measurements used to evaluate and test the instrument measurement characteristics.(More)
—A global data set of cloud occurrence probability derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua gridded daily data is analyzed to investigate the probability of obtaining at least a minimum number of cloud-free observations within various compositing periods. The probabilities derived from Terra and Aqua, with morning(More)
A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirec-tional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship , if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its(More)