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The specificities of 28 commercially available compounds reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases have been examined against a large panel of protein kinases. The compounds KT 5720, Rottlerin and quercetin were found to inhibit many protein kinases, sometimes much more potently than their(More)
BACKGROUND Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as c-Akt, is activated rapidly when mammalian cells are stimulated with insulin and growth factors, and much of the current interest in this enzyme stems from the observation that it lies 'downstream' of phosphoinositide 3-kinase on intracellular signalling pathways. We recently showed that insulin or(More)
We have previously examined the specificities of 28 commercially available compounds, reported to be relatively selective inhibitors of particular serine/threonine-specific protein kinases [Davies, Reddy, Caivano and Cohen (2000) Biochem. J. 351, 95-105]. In the present study, we have extended this analysis to a further 14 compounds. Of these,(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate many of the cellular effects of growth factors, cytokines and stress stimuli. Their activation requires the phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue located in a Thr-X-Tyr motif (where X is any amino acid) [1]. This phosphorylation is catalysed by MAPK kinases (MKKs), which are all thought to be(More)
Apoptosis is fundamental to the development and maintenance of animal tissues and the immune system. Rapid clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is important to inhibit inflammation and autoimmune responses against intracellular antigens. Here we report a new function for Mer, a member of the Axl/Mer/Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase family. mer(kd) mice(More)
Tau is a neuronal phosphoprotein the expression of which is developmentally regulated. A single tau isoform is expressed in fetal human brain but six isoforms are expressed in adult human brain, with the fetal isoform corresponding to the shortest adult isoform. Phosphorylation is also developmentally regulated, as fetal tau is phosphorylated at more sites(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are strongly associated with late-onset autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is highly expressed in immune cells and recent work points towards a link between LRRK2 and innate immunity. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathway by MyD88-dependent agonists in bone(More)
BACKGROUND Protein kinase B (PKB), and the p70 and p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (p70 S6 kinase and p90 Rsk, respectively), are activated by phosphorylation of two residues, one in the 'T-loop' of the kinase domain and, the other, in the hydrophobic motif carboxy terminal to the kinase domain. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) activates(More)
Following the discovery of insulin, it took the rest of the twentieth century to understand how this hormone regulates intracellular metabolism. What are the main discoveries that led to our current understanding of this process? And how is this new knowledge being exploited in an attempt to develop improved drugs to treat the epidemic of type-2 diabetes?