Philip L. Ballard

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Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, product of the Nkx2.1 gene) is essential for branching morphogenesis of the lung and enhances expression of surfactant proteins by alveolar type II cells. We investigated expression of two TTF-1 mRNA transcripts, generated by alternative start sites and coding for 42- and 46-kD protein isoforms in the mouse, during(More)
Mature alveolar type II cells that produce pulmonary surfactant are essential for adaptation to extrauterine life. We profiled gene expression in human fetal lung epithelial cells cultured in serum-free medium containing dexamethasone and cyclic AMP, a treatment that induces differentiation of type II cells. Microarray analysis identified 388 genes that(More)
OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide treatment of premature infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia would not adversely affect endogenous surfactant function or composition. METHODS As part of the Nitric Oxide Chronic Lung Disease Trial of inhaled nitric oxide, we examined surfactant in a subpopulation of enrolled infants. Tracheal(More)
Maturation of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells in utero is characterized by specific changes to lung surfactant phospholipids. Here, we quantified the effects of hormonal differentiation in vitro on the molecular specificity of cellular and secreted phospholipids from human fetal type II epithelial cells using electrospray ionization mass(More)
OBJECTIVE Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a potential new therapy for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and brain injury in premature infants. This study examined dose-related effects of iNO on NO metabolites as evidence of NO delivery. STUDY DESIGN A subset of 102 premature infants in the NO CLD trial, receiving 24 days of iNO (20 p.p.m. decreasing(More)
We examined the ability of the human surfactant protein B (SP-B) promoter to confer cell specificity of transgene expression in an adenoviral vector. Using similar replication-deficient adenoviruses (rAd), we compared lacZ reporter gene expression driven by the human SP-B promoter (rAd.SPBlacZ) with the ubiquitously expressed Rous sarcoma virus promoter(More)
In the fetal lung, endogenous transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta inhibits early morphogenesis and blocks hormone-induced type II cell differentiation. We hypothesized that endogenous TGF-beta inhibits type II cell differentiation and that the stimulatory effects of glucocorticoids result in part from suppression of TGF-beta. Epithelial cells were(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and cellular functions of the epithelial NADPH oxidase DUOX1 during alveolar type II cell development. When human fetal lung cells (gestational age 11-22 wk) were cultured to confluency on permeable filters, exposure of cells to a hormone mixture (dexamethasone, 8-Br-cAMP, and IBMX, together referred(More)
BACKGROUND Surfactant dysfunction may contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in persistently ventilated preterm infants. We conducted a multicenter randomized, blinded, pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of late administration of doses of a surfactant protein-B (SP-B)-containing surfactant (calfactant) in combination(More)
RATIONALE Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in lung development and perinatal lung function, and pulmonary NO synthases (NOS) are decreased in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) following preterm birth. Fetal estradiol levels increase during late gestation and estradiol up-regulates NOS, suggesting that after preterm birth estradiol deprivation causes(More)