Philip L. Ballard

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Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, product of the Nkx2.1 gene) is essential for branching morphogenesis of the lung and enhances expression of surfactant proteins by alveolar type II cells. We investigated expression of two TTF-1 mRNA transcripts, generated by alternative start sites and coding for 42- and 46-kD protein isoforms in the mouse, during(More)
Mutations in the surfactant protein (SP)-C gene are responsible for familial and sporadic interstitial lung disease (ILD). The consequences of such mutations on pulmonary surfactant composition and function are poorly understood. To determine the effects of a mutation in the SP-C gene on surfactant, we obtained lung tissue at the time of transplantation(More)
Mature alveolar type II cells that produce pulmonary surfactant are essential for adaptation to extrauterine life. We profiled gene expression in human fetal lung epithelial cells cultured in serum-free medium containing dexamethasone and cyclic AMP, a treatment that induces differentiation of type II cells. Microarray analysis identified 388 genes that(More)
OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide treatment of premature infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia would not adversely affect endogenous surfactant function or composition. METHODS As part of the Nitric Oxide Chronic Lung Disease Trial of inhaled nitric oxide, we examined surfactant in a subpopulation of enrolled infants. Tracheal(More)
Although premature infants are known to be deficient in pulmonary surfactant, there is limited information regarding surfactant protein (SP) composition. To assess the postnatal profile of SPs, tracheal aspirate samples were collected from 35 intubated infants of 23-31 weeks of gestation between 8 and 80 days of age. In 71 large aggregate surfactant samples(More)
Infants with inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant protein (SP) B develop respiratory failure at birth and die without lung transplantation. We examined aspects of surfactant metabolism in lung tissue and lavage fluid acquired at transplantation or postmortem from ten infants born at term with inherited deficiency of SP-B; comparison groups were(More)
Maturation of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells in utero is characterized by specific changes to lung surfactant phospholipids. Here, we quantified the effects of hormonal differentiation in vitro on the molecular specificity of cellular and secreted phospholipids from human fetal type II epithelial cells using electrospray ionization mass(More)
We examined the ability of the human surfactant protein B (SP-B) promoter to confer cell specificity of transgene expression in an adenoviral vector. Using similar replication-deficient adenoviruses (rAd), we compared lacZ reporter gene expression driven by the human SP-B promoter (rAd.SPBlacZ) with the ubiquitously expressed Rous sarcoma virus promoter(More)
OBJECTIVE Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a potential new therapy for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and brain injury in premature infants. This study examined dose-related effects of iNO on NO metabolites as evidence of NO delivery. STUDY DESIGN A subset of 102 premature infants in the NO CLD trial, receiving 24 days of iNO (20 p.p.m. decreasing(More)
In the fetal lung, endogenous transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta inhibits early morphogenesis and blocks hormone-induced type II cell differentiation. We hypothesized that endogenous TGF-beta inhibits type II cell differentiation and that the stimulatory effects of glucocorticoids result in part from suppression of TGF-beta. Epithelial cells were(More)