Philip L. Ballard

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Branching morphogenesis in the lung serves as a model for the complex patterning that is reiterated in multiple organs throughout development. Beta-catenin and Wnt signaling mediate critical functions in cell fate specification and differentiation, but specific functions during branching morphogenesis have remained unclear. Here, we show that(More)
Members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily actively transport a wide range of substrates across cell and intracellular membranes. Mutations in ABCA3, a member of the ABCA subfamily with unknown function, lead to fatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn. Using cultured human lung cells, we found that recombinant wild-type(More)
Hop is an unusual homeodomain protein that was first identified in the developing heart where it functions downstream of Nkx2.5 to modulate cardiac gene expression. Hop functions through interactions with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 to mediate repression of cardiac-specific genes, and recent studies show that HDAC activity and HDAC2 expression are(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) represses surfactant protein B (Sp-B) gene transcription through a mechanism that remains unknown. A homeodomain and a forkhead transcription factor, NKX2.1 and HNF-3, respectively, are known activators of Sp-B transcription. Because SMADs are the effectors of TGF-beta-induced gene activation, we examined the(More)
Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, product of the Nkx2.1 gene) is essential for branching morphogenesis of the lung and enhances expression of surfactant proteins by alveolar type II cells. We investigated expression of two TTF-1 mRNA transcripts, generated by alternative start sites and coding for 42- and 46-kD protein isoforms in the mouse, during(More)
The developmental pattern for plasma corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and unbound corticoids was studied in fetal and newborn sheep. CBG capacity in the fetus increased progressively from a value of 1.6 micrograms cortisol bound/dl plasma at 75 days gestation to 7.1 micrograms/dl at 141 days (n = 249), with a greater rate of increase after 120 days. By(More)
myo-Inositol (Ins) and its polyphosphoinositide derivatives that are important in membrane signaling have long been held to play a special role in brain metabolism. As polyphosphoinositides turn over rapidly and are exceptionally abundant in nervous tissue, high Ins levels in the range of 2-15 mm that have been observed in brain may be necessary to maintain(More)
Surfactant protein B (SP-B8), an 8-kDa hydrophobic protein essential for surfactant and normal lung function, is produced from the intracellular processing of preproSP-B. To characterize SP-B processing in human type 2 cells, we used human fetal lung in explant culture and polyclonal antibodies to human SP-B8 (Phe201-Met279) and to specific epitopes within(More)