Philip Kramer

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The recent decline in the condition of coral reef communities worldwide has fueled the need to develop innovative assessment tools to document coral abundance and distribution rapidly and effectively. While most monitoring programs rely primarily on data collected in situ by trained divers, digital photographs and video are used increasingly to extract(More)
During the summer of 2005, an unprecedented sequence of four hurricanes impacted the reefs of the Florida Keys. Damage patterns to coral reefs are commonly influenced by the strength, path, and duration of each storm event (Harmelin-Vivien 1994; Lirman & Fong 1997; Lirman 2000). In the case of sequential storms, damage patterns can be also determined by(More)
Traumatic fractures cause structurally unstable sites due to severe bone loss. Such fractures generate a high yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidative stress. Excessive and prolonged ROS activity impedes osteoblast differentiation and instigates long healing times. Stimulation of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD1), are(More)
OBJECTIVE Many different genes or mediators have been implicated in promoting the development of vasculitis, although little is known regarding the mechanisms that normally act to suppress lesion formation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been shown to inhibit vascular inflammation in many different model systems, but its roles in the(More)
Efficient survey methodologies that provide comprehensive assessment of reef condition are fundamental to coral reef monitoring. Current state-of-the-art techniques in coral reef assessment rely on highly trained scientific divers to measure indices of reef health (e.g., substrate cover, species richness, coral size, coral mortality). First-generation video(More)
Commonly used antimotility and antidiarrheal drugs were administered to six ileostomized subjects to determine whether their normal ileal excreta and that induced by prune juice could be altered. A total of 49 studies were performed, 21 with and 28 without prune juice. Bismuth subgallate was the only drug which significantly reduced the normal ileal excreta(More)
M ISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE DISEASE variously called "cardiospasm" or "achalasia" persist in spite of recent investigations further clarifying the pathological physiology of this esophageal disorder. Tile diagnosis of cardiospasm has long been a scrap-basket to include any ill-defined benign esophageal abnormali ty or vague symptom complex suggesting an(More)
Present evidence would indicate that two or possibly more types of bilirubin, known historically as direct and indirect bilirubin, exist. The differences reside in the chemical nature of each bilirubin and not in the nature of the protein linkage. Direct bilirubin is a water-soluble compound probably in the form of a conjugated bilirubin-glucuronide11;(More)
A case of ulcerative colitis is reported in which restoration of intestinal continuity 27 yr. after an ileostomy led to flare-up of the disease. Ileostomy and colectomy were necessary to control the disease. This case seems to emphasize the opinion expressed already in 1932 that “ileostomy for ulcerative colitis should be permanent.”3 While on steroid(More)