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Problems associated with large-scale pattern growth of graphene constitute one of the main obstacles to using this material in device applications. Recently, macroscopic-scale graphene films were prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically derived from graphite crystals and graphene oxides. However, the sheet resistance of these films(More)
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied(More)
The novel electronic properties of graphene, including a linear energy dispersion relation and purely two-dimensional structure, have led to intense research into possible applications of this material in nanoscale devices. Here we report the first observation of saturating transistor characteristics in a graphene field-effect transistor. The saturation(More)
Scanning tunneling microscopy, spectroscopy, and tight-binding calculations have been used to elucidate the unique structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). First, the unique relationship between SWNT atomic structure and electronic properties, and the richness of structures observed in both purified and chemically(More)
We report an electron transport study of lithographically fabricated graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of various widths and lengths. At the charge neutrality point, a length-independent transport gap forms whose size is inversely proportional to the GNR width. In this gap, electrons are localized, and charge transport exhibits a transition between thermally(More)
Gate-modulated low-temperature Raman spectra reveal that the electric field effect (EFE), pervasive in contemporary electronics, has marked impacts on long-wavelength optical phonons of graphene. The EFE in this two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms creates large density modulations of carriers with linear dispersion (known as Dirac fermions).(More)
We present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of single-layer graphene crystals examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The samples, with lateral dimensions on the micrometer scale, were prepared on a silicon dioxide surface by direct exfoliation of crystalline graphite. The single-layer films were identified by using Raman spectroscopy.(More)
Atomically thin forms of layered materials, such as conducting graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and semiconducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have generated great interests recently due to the possibility of combining diverse atomic layers by mechanical "stacking" to create novel materials and devices. In this work, we demonstrate(More)
Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is polycrystalline, and scattering of charge carriers at grain boundaries (GBs) could degrade its performance relative to exfoliated, single-crystal graphene. However, the electrical properties of GBs have so far been addressed indirectly without simultaneous knowledge of their locations and structures.(More)
We present an experimental investigation on the scaling of resistance in individual single-walled carbon nanotube devices with channel lengths that vary 4 orders of magnitude on the same sample. The electron mean free path is obtained from the linear scaling of resistance with length at various temperatures. The low temperature mean free path is determined(More)