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The novel electronic properties of graphene, including a linear energy dispersion relation and purely two-dimensional structure, have led to intense research into possible applications of this material in nanoscale devices. Here we report the first observation of saturating transistor characteristics in a graphene field-effect transistor. The saturation(More)
Problems associated with large-scale pattern growth of graphene constitute one of the main obstacles to using this material in device applications. Recently, macroscopic-scale graphene films were prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically derived from graphite crystals and graphene oxides. However, the sheet resistance of these films(More)
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied(More)
We investigate electronic transport in lithographically patterned graphene ribbon structures where the lateral confinement of charge carriers creates an energy gap near the charge neutrality point. Individual graphene layers are contacted with metal electrodes and patterned into ribbons of varying widths and different crystallographic orientations. The(More)
Scanning tunneling microscopy, spectroscopy, and tight-binding calculations have been used to elucidate the unique structural and electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). First, the unique relationship between SWNT atomic structure and electronic properties, and the richness of structures observed in both purified and chemically(More)
The enormous stiffness and low density of graphene make it an ideal material for nanoelectromechanical applications. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and electrical readout of monolayer graphene resonators, and test their response to changes in mass and temperature. The devices show resonances in the megahertz range, and the strong dependence of(More)
The thermal conductivities of individual single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires with diameters of 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm were measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20–320 K. Although the nanowires had well-defined crystalline order, the thermal conductivity observed was more than two orders of magnitude lower than(More)
UNLABELLED Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. Pathologic downstaging to pT0/pTis after neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy is associated with improved survival, although molecular determinants of cisplatin response are incompletely understood. We performed whole-exome sequencing(More)
We report on the temperature dependent electron transport in graphene at different carrier densities n. Employing an electrolytic gate, we demonstrate that n can be adjusted up to 4 × 10(14)  cm(-2) for both electrons and holes. The measured sample resistivity ρ increases linearly with temperature T in the high temperature limit, indicating that a(More)
We present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of single-layer graphene crystals examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The samples, with lateral dimensions on the micrometer scale, were prepared on a silicon dioxide surface by direct exfoliation of crystalline graphite. The single-layer films were identified by using Raman spectroscopy.(More)