Philip K. Hopke

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Data characterizing daily integrated particulate matter (PM) samples collected at the Jefferson Street monitoring site in Atlanta, GA, were analyzed through the application of a bilinear positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. A total of 662 samples and 26 variables were used for fine particle (particles < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) samples(More)
Aerosol particles have received significant public and scientific attention in recent years due to studies linking them to global climatic changes and human health effects. In 1994, Prather et al. (Prather, K. A.; Nordmeyer, T.; Salt, K. Anal. Chem. 1994, 66, 1403-1407) developed aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), the first technique capable(More)
BACKGROUND Interest in the health effects of particulate matter (PM) has focused on identifying sources of PM, including biomass burning, power plants, and gasoline and diesel emissions that may be associated with adverse health risks. Few epidemiologic studies, however, have included source-apportionment estimates in their examinations of PM health(More)
During the past three decades, receptor models have been used to identify and apportion ambient concentrations to sources. A number of groups are employing these methods to provide input into air quality management planning. A workshop has explored the use of resolved source contributions in health effects models. Multiple groups have analyzed particulate(More)
Aerosol chemical composition data for PM2.5 samples collected during the period from 1988 to 1995 at Underhill, VT, were analyzed. Sulfur and black carbon mass concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 microg m(-3) and from 0.05 to 2.2 microg m(-3), respectively, while the total fine aerosol mass concentration ranged from 0.2 to 51.1 microg m(-3). Seasonal(More)
Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for global disease. Assessment of the impacts of air pollution on population health and evaluation of trends relative to other major risk factors requires regularly updated, accurate, spatially resolved exposure estimates. We combined satellite-based estimates, chemical transport model simulations,(More)
Source apportionment may be useful in epidemiological investigation of PM health effects, but variations and options in these methods leave uncertainties. An EPA-sponsored workshop investigated source apportionment and health effects analyses by examining the associations between daily mortality and the investigators' estimated source-apportioned PM(2.5)(More)
CONTEXT Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of(More)
Chemical composition data for fine and coarse particles collected in Phoenix, AZ, were analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The objective was to identify the possible aerosol sources at the sampling site. PMF uses estimates of the error in the data to provide optimum data point scaling and permits a better treatment of missing and(More)
Particle size distribution data collected between September 1997 and August 2001 in Erfurt, Germany were used to investigate the sources of ambient particulate matter by positive matrix factorization (PMF). A total of 29,313 hourly averaged particle size distribution measurements covering the size range of 0.01 to 3.0 microm were included in the analysis.(More)