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The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in interneurons of the central nervous system (CNS), including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, in concentrations exceeding those of any other known neuropeptides. Sequence data comparing different species show that NPY is highly conserved. This suggests a critical role in regulation of regional neuronal(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a newly discovered neuropeptide that is present in high amounts in hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons and potently stimulates the accumulation of cAMP within cells of the anterior pituitary. We have employed several specific antisera recognizing different parts of the PACAP precursor to(More)
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-(7-36) amide and its pancreatic receptors are important for control of blood glucose levels. However, rat GLP-1 receptors are also localized in the brain, in hypothalamus, and in areas without a blood-brain barrier. When rats were kept on a food restriction schedule, intracerebroventricular injection of GLP-1 just before food(More)
The novel neuropeptide cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is expressed in several hypothalamic regions and has recently been shown to be involved in the central control of food intake. To characterize the hypothalamic CART neurons and understand the physiological functions they might serve, we undertook an in situ hybridization and(More)
We have recently shown that the hypothalamic neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated-transcript) is a leptin dependent endogenous satiety factor in the rat. In the present study we confirm and extend our previous observations by showing that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administered CART(42-89) dose-dependently inhibits 3-h food intake in food(More)
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) relays photic information from the eyes to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Activation of this pathway by light plays a role in adjusting circadian timing via a glutamatergic pathway at night. Here we report a new signaling pathway by which the RHT may regulate circadian timing in the daytime as well. We used dual(More)
PURPOSE The putative circadian photoreceptor melanopsin is found in rodents in a subpopulation of intrinsic light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) constituting the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). The study was conducted to determine whether melanopsin is expressed in the human retina and costored with the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase(More)
Central administration of the preproglucagon-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 significantly inhibits ingestion of food and water, and glucagon-like peptide-1 binding sites are present in a multitude of central areas involved in the regulation of ingestional behaviour. To evaluate further the neuroanatomical organization of central glucagon-like(More)
Within the central nervous system, glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) acts as a transmitter, inhibiting feeding and drinking behavior. Hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons are centrally involved in the regulatory mechanisms controlling these behaviors, and high densities of GLP-1 binding sites are present in the rat hypothalamus. In the present(More)